Decaffeinated green and black tea polyphenols decrease weight gain and alter microbiome populations and function in diet-induced obese mice
Decaffeinated green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) polyphenols inhibit weight gain in mice fed an obesogenic diet. Since the intestinal microflora is an important contributor to obesity, it was the objective of this study to determine whether the intestinal microflora plays a role in the anti-obesogenic effect of GT and BT.
C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HF/HS, 32% energy from fat; 25% energy from sucrose) or the same diet supplemented with 0.25% GTP or BTP or a low-fat/high-sucrose (LF/HS, 10.6% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose) diet for 4 weeks. Bacterial composition was assessed by MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene.
GTP and BTP diets resulted in a decrease of cecum Firmicutes and increase in Bacteroidetes. The relative proportions of Blautia, Bryantella, Collinsella, Lactobacillus, Marvinbryantia, Turicibacter, Barnesiella, and Parabacteroides were significantly correlated with weight loss induced by tea extracts. BTP increased the relative proportion of Pseudobutyrivibrio and intestinal formation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) analyzed by gas chromatography. Cecum propionic acid content was significantly correlated with the relative proportion of Pseudobutyrivibrio. GTP and BTP induced a significant increase in hepatic 5′adenosylmonophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation by 70 and 289%, respectively (P < 0.05) determined by Western blot.
In summary, both BTP and GTP induced weight loss in association with alteration of the microbiota and increased hepatic AMPK phosphorylation. We hypothesize that BTP increased pAMPK through increased intestinal SCFA production, while GTPs increased hepatic AMPK through GTP present in the liver.
KeywordsBlack tea Green tea Polyphenols Microflora Obesity AMPK phosphorylation Short-chain fatty acids
- 7.Ikeda I, Hamamoto R, Uzu K, Imaizumi K, Nagao K, Yanagita T, Suzuki Y, Kobayashi M, Kakuda T (2005) Dietary gallate esters of tea catechins reduce deposition of visceral fat, hepatic triacylglycerol, and activities of hepatic enzymes related to fatty acid synthesis in rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 69(5):1049–1053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Parks BW, Nam E, Org E, Kostem E, Norheim F, Hui ST, Pan C, Civelek M, Rau CD, Bennett BJ, Mehrabian M, Ursell LK, He A, Castellani LW, Zinker B, Kirby M, Drake TA, Drevon CA, Knight R, Gargalovic P, Kirchgessner T, Eskin E, Lusis AJ (2013) Genetic control of obesity and gut microbiota composition in response to high-fat, high-sucrose diet in mice. Cell Metab 17(1):141–152. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2012.12.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.den Besten G, Gerding A, van Dijk TH, Ciapaite J, Bleeker A, van Eunen K, Havinga R, Groen AK, Reijngoud DJ, Bakker BM (2015) Protection against the metabolic syndrome by guar gum-derived short-chain fatty acids depends on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and glucagon-like peptide-1. PLoS One 10(8):e0136364. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0136364 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Xie B, Shi H, Chen Q, Ho CT (1993) Antioxidant properties of fractions and polyphenol constituents from green, oolong and black teas. Proc Natl Sci Counc Repub China B 17(2):77–84Google Scholar
- 22.Singleton VL, Esau P (1969) Phenolic substances in grapes and wine, and their significance. Adv Food Res Suppl 1:1–261Google Scholar
- 28.Ridaura VK, Faith JJ, Rey FE, Cheng J, Duncan AE, Kau AL, Griffin NW, Lombard V, Henrissat B, Bain JR, Muehlbauer MJ, Ilkayeva O, Semenkovich CF, Funai K, Hayashi DK, Lyle BJ, Martini MC, Ursell LK, Clemente JC, Van Treuren W, Walters WA, Knight R, Newgard CB, Heath AC, Gordon JI (2013) Gut microbiota from twins discordant for obesity modulate metabolism in mice. Science 341(6150):1241214. doi:10.1126/science.1241214 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.Kasperowicz A, Stan-Glasek K, Guczynska W, Piknova M, Pristas P, Nigutova K, Javorsky P, Michalowski T (2010) Fructanolytic and saccharolytic enzymes of the rumen bacterium Pseudobutyrivibrio ruminis strain 3—preliminary study. Folia Microbiol 55(4):329–331. doi:10.1007/s12223-010-0051-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 32.Nyambe-Silavwe H, Williamson G (2016) Polyphenol- and fibre-rich dried fruits with green tea attenuate starch-derived postprandial blood glucose and insulin: a randomised, controlled, single-blind, cross-over intervention. Br J Nutr 116(3):443–450. doi:10.1017/S0007114516002221 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 34.den Besten G, Havinga R, Bleeker A, Rao S, Gerding A, van Eunen K, Groen AK, Reijngoud DJ, Bakker BM (2014) The short-chain fatty acid uptake fluxes by mice on a guar gum supplemented diet associate with amelioration of major biomarkers of the metabolic syndrome. PLoS One 9(9):e107392. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0107392 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 36.Henning SM, Wang P, Abgaryan N, Vicinanza R, de Oliveira DM, Zhang Y, Lee RP, Carpenter CL, Aronson WJ, Heber D (2013) Phenolic acid concentrations in plasma and urine from men consuming green or black tea and potential chemopreventive properties for colon cancer. Mol Nutr Food Res 57(3):483–493. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201200646 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 39.Santamarina AB, Oliveira JL, Silva FP, Carnier J, Mennitti LV, Santana AA, de Souza GH, Ribeiro EB, Oller do Nascimento CM, Lira FS, Oyama LM (2015) Green tea extract rich in epigallocatechin-3-gallate prevents fatty liver by AMPK activation via LKB1 in mice fed a high-fat diet. PLoS One 10(11):e0141227. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0141227 CrossRefGoogle Scholar