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J-shaped relationship between habitual coffee consumption and 10-year (2002–2012) cardiovascular disease incidence: the ATTICA study

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence in the ATTICA study, and whether this is modified by the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) at baseline.

Methods

During 2001–2002, 3042 healthy adults (1514 men and 1528 women) living in the greater area of Athens were voluntarily recruited to the ATTICA study. In 2011–2012, the 10-year follow-up was performed in 2583 participants (15% of the participants were lost to follow-up). Coffee consumption was assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline (abstention, low, moderate, heavy). Incidence of fatal or non-fatal CVD event was recorded using WHO-ICD-10 criteria and MetS was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment panel III (revised) criteria.

Results

Overall, after controlling for potential CVD risk factors, the multivariate analysis revealed a J-shaped association between daily coffee drinking and the risk for a first CVD event in a 10-year period. Particularly, the odds ratio for low (<150 ml/day), moderate (150–250 ml/day) and heavy coffee consumption (>250 ml/day), compared to abstention, were 0.44 (95% CI 0.29–0.68), 0.49 (95% CI 0.27–0.92) and 2.48 (95% CI 1.56–1.93), respectively. This inverse association was also verified among participants without MetS at baseline, but not among participants with the MetS.

Conclusions

These data support the protective effect of drinking moderate quantities of coffee (equivalent to approximately 1–2 cups daily) against CVD incidents. This protective effect was only significant for participants without MetS at baseline.

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the ATTICA study group of investigators: Yannis Skoumas, Natasa Katinioti, Labros Papadimitriou, Constantina Masoura, Spiros Vellas, Yannis Lentzas, Manolis Kambaxis, Konstanitna Paliou, Vassiliki Metaxa, Agathi Ntzouvani, Dimitris Mpougatas, Nikolaos Skourlis, Christina Papanikolaou, Aikaterini Kalogeropoulou, Evangelia Pitaraki, Alexandros Laskaris, Mihail Hatzigeorgiou and Athanasios Grekas, Eleni Kokkou for either assistance in the initial physical examination and follow-up evaluation, Efi Tsetsekou for her assistance in psychological evaluation and follow-up evaluation, as well as laboratory team: Carmen Vassiliadou and George Dedousis (genetic analysis), Marina Toutouza-Giotsa, Constantina Tselika and Sia Poulopouloou (biochemical analysis) and Maria Toutouza for the database management.

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Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

GMK had the concept of the paper, performed data analyses and interpreted the results. DP, CC, and EG contributed by providing the design of the study, critically reviewed the paper and approved the final version, AZ, CT, DT, CS, and CP critically reviewed the paper. All authors approved the final version.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos.

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Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Funding

D.B. Panagiotakos and E. Georgousopoulou received research grants from Coca-Cola SA. The ATTICA study has been funded by research grants from the Hellenic Cardiology Society and the Hellenic Atherosclerosis Society.

Additional information

All authors state that they take the responsibility for all aspects of the reliability and freedom from bias of the data presented and their discussed interpretation.

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Kouli, GM., Panagiotakos, D.B., Georgousopoulou, E.N. et al. J-shaped relationship between habitual coffee consumption and 10-year (2002–2012) cardiovascular disease incidence: the ATTICA study. Eur J Nutr 57, 1677–1685 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-017-1455-6

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-017-1455-6

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Coffee
  • Inflammation