Effects of coconut oil consumption on energy metabolism, cardiometabolic risk markers, and appetitive responses in women with excess body fat
- 1.1k Downloads
Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is a medium-chain fatty acid source with popularly attributed benefits on obesity management. However, its role on obesity requires elucidation due to its saturated nature. In the study herein, we investigated acute effects of VCO consumption on energy metabolism, cardiometabolic risk markers, and appetitive responses in women with excess body fat.
Fifteen adult women with excess body fat (37.43 ± 0.83%) participated in this randomized, crossover, controlled study. Two isocaloric mixed breakfasts containing 25 mL of VCO or control (extra-virgin olive oil-C) were evaluated. Resting energy expenditure (REE), fat oxidation rate (FOR), diet induced thermogenesis (DIT) and appetitive subjective responses were assessed at fasting and postprandial periods (up to 240 min). Cardiometabolic risk markers were assessed at fasting and up to 180 min postprandially.
VCO did not affect REE, FOR, and DIT compared to C. In addition, VCO did not cause deleterious change in triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, triglycerides/HDL-c ratio, uric acid, glucose and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance Index (HOMA-IR) (P time×treatment > 0.05). However, VCO suppressed less hunger (P time×treatment = 0.003), total satiety (P iAUC = 0.021) and total fullness (P iAUC = 0.035) responses than C.
VCO consumption did not acutely change energy metabolism and cardiometabolic risk markers when added to a mixed breakfast but promoted less appetitive responses.
KeywordsCoconut oil Energy metabolism Fat oxidation Cardiometabolic risk markers Appetite
We thank Dr. Orgânico, company affiliated to the FidBō group, for kindly donate virgin coconut oil for this research. We also thank Bioclin® for providing biochemical assays kits and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais—FAPEMIG, Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior—CAPES, and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico—CNPq for financial support. These companies had no role in manuscript design, analysis, or writing.
Compliance with ethical standards
The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Universidade Federal de Viçosa (protocol number: 541,836/2014), conducted in accordance with 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments and registered at http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/(RBR-8NGPQ9). All participants gave written consent after receiving verbal and written information.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 2.World Health Organization (2016) Obesity and overweight. WHOGoogle Scholar
- 6.St-Onge M-P, Jones PJH (2002) Physiological effects of medium-chain triglycerides: potential agents in the prevention of obesity. J Nutr 132:329–332Google Scholar
- 9.Bendixen H, Flint A, Raben A et al (2002) Effect of 3 modified fats and a conventional fat on appetite, energy intake, energy expenditure, and substrate oxidation in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr 75:47–56Google Scholar
- 10.White MD, Papamandjaris AA, Jones PJ (1999) Enhanced postprandial energy expenditure with medium-chain fatty acid feeding is attenuated after 14 d in premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 69:883–889Google Scholar
- 12.Van Wymelbeke V, Himaya A, Louis-Sylvestre J, Fantino M (1998) Influence of medium-chain and long-chain triacylglycerols on the control of food intake in men. Am J Clin Nutr 68:226–234Google Scholar
- 13.Van Wymelbeke V, Louis-Sylvestre J, Fantino M (2001) Substrate oxidation and control of food intake in men after a fat-substitute meal compared with meals supplemented with an isoenergetic load of carbohydrate, long-chain triacylglycerols, or medium-chain triacylglycerols. Am J Clin Nutr 74:620–630Google Scholar
- 18.Tholstrup T, Ehnholm C, Jauhiainen M et al (2004) Effects of medium-chain fatty acids and oleic acid on blood lipids, lipoproteins, glucose, insulin, and lipid transfer protein activities. Am J Clin Nutr 79:564–569Google Scholar
- 22.Rego Costa AC, Rosado EL, Soares-Mota M (2012) Influence of the dietary intake of medium chain triglycerides on body composition, energy expenditure and satiety: a systematic review. Nutr Hosp 27:103–8. doi: 10.1590/S0212-16112012000100011
- 26.Soares MJ, Piers LS, Kraai L, Shetty PS (1989) Day-to-day variations in basal metabolic rates and energy intakes of human subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 43:465–472Google Scholar
- 28.Núcleo de Estudosde e pesquisas em Alimentação – NEPA (2011) Tabela Brasileira de Composicao de Alimentos - TACO, 4th edn. NEPA- UNICAMP, CampinasGoogle Scholar
- 29.Hartman L, Lago RC (1973) Rapid preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from lipids. Lab Pract 22:475–476 (passim)Google Scholar
- 32.Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS (1972) Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 18:499–502Google Scholar
- 35.Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations., Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Carbohydrates in Human Nutrition (1997 : Rome I (1998) Carbohydrates in human nutrition : report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation, Rome, 14-18 April 1997. World Health OrganizationGoogle Scholar
- 36.Alberti KGMM, Eckel RH, Grundy SM et al (2009) Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International. Circulation 120:1640–1645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 42.White MD, Papamandjaris AA, Jones PJ (1999) Enhanced postprandial energy expenditure with medium-chain fatty acid feeding is attenuated after 14 d in premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 69:883–889Google Scholar
- 43.St-Onge M-P, Bourque C, Jones PJH et al (2003) Medium- versus long-chain triglycerides for 27 days increases fat oxidation and energy expenditure without resulting in changes in body composition in overweight women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27:95–102. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802169 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 46.DeLany JP, Windhauser MM, Champagne CM, Bray GA (2000) Differential oxidation of individual dietary fatty acids in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 72:905–911Google Scholar
- 47.Jones PJ, Pencharz PB, Clandinin MT (1985) Whole body oxidation of dietary fatty acids: implications for energy utilization. Am J Clin Nutr 42:769–777Google Scholar
- 49.Sáyago-Ayerdi SG, Vaquero MP, Schultz-Moreira A et al (2008) Utilidad y controversias del consumo de ácidos grasos de cadena media sobre el metabolismo lipoproteico y obesidad. Nutr, Hosp, p 23Google Scholar
- 50.Liu Y, Wang J, Zhang R et al (2009) A good response to oil with medium- and long-chain fatty acids in body fat and blood lipid profiles of male hypertriglyceridemic subjects. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 18:351–358Google Scholar
- 54.Roels OA, Hashim SA (1962) Influence of fatty acids on serum cholesterol. Fed Proc 21(4)Pt 2:71–76Google Scholar
- 55.Cater NB, Heller HJ, Denke MA (1997) Comparison of the effects of medium-chain triacylglycerols, palm oil, and high oleic acid sunflower oil on plasma triacylglycerol fatty acids and lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 65:41–45Google Scholar
- 58.Joannic JL, Auboiron S, Raison J et al (1997) How the degree of unsaturation of dietary fatty acids influences the glucose and insulin responses to different carbohydrates in mixed meals. Am J Clin Nutr 65:1427–1433Google Scholar
- 59.Thomsen C, Rasmussen O, Lousen T et al (1999) Differential effects of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids on postprandial lipemia and incretin responses in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 69:1135–1143Google Scholar
- 60.Gatti E, Noè D, Pazzucconi F et al (1992) Differential effect of unsaturated oils and butter on blood glucose and insulin response to carbohydrate in normal volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr 46:161–166Google Scholar