European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 56, Issue 6, pp 2029–2036 | Cite as

Consumption of vitamin D-fortified yogurt drink increased leptin and ghrelin levels but reduced leptin to ghrelin ratio in type 2 diabetes patients: a single blind randomized controlled trial

  • Mina Hajimohammadi
  • Sakineh Shab-BidarEmail author
  • Tirang R. NeyestaniEmail author



This study aimed to evaluate the effect of daily consumption of vitamin D-fortified yogurt drink (doogh) in comparison with plain doogh on appetite-regulating hormones including leptin and ghrelin in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients.


In a single blind randomized clinical trial, subjects with T2D were randomly allocated to one of the two groups and received either vitamin D3-fortified doogh (FD; containing 170 mg calcium and 500 IU/250 mL, n 2 = 50) or plain doogh (PD; containing 170 mg calcium and no vitamin D/250 mL, n 1 = 50) twice a day for 12 weeks. Leptin and ghrelin were evaluated at the beginning and after 12 weeks of intervention.


The intervention resulted in a significant improvement of circulating 25(OH)D, fasting glucose, Quantitative Insulin Check Index (QUICKI), hs-CRP, in FD compared with PD group. A significant rise in both serum leptin (+1.3 ± 7.2 mg/L; p = 0.013) and ghrelin (10.1 ± 26.1 ng/L; p = 0.012) was observed in FD group. A between-group difference for ghrelin changes (p = 0.029) remained significant after adjusting for changes QUICKI (p = 0.039), body mass index (p = 0.034) and hs-CRP (p = 0.022). Despite an increase in both leptin and ghrelin, leptin to ghrelin (L/G) ratio actually decreased in FD. Changes of L/G ratio showed a significant between-group difference (p = 0.036), which remained significant even after adjusting for changes of hs-CRP (p = 0.028) and fat mass (p = 0.047) but disappeared after adjusting for changes of QUICKI (p = 0.42).


Daily intake of vitamin D-fortified doogh may increase circulating leptin and ghrelin but L/G ratio may actually decrease. Our results suggest that improving vitamin D may result in an improvement in insulin sensitivity which may finally regulate beneficially appetite hormones. Further studies with adequate power are needed to confirm the results.


Vitamin D Leptin Ghrelin Type 2 diabetes 



We thank the Iranian Diabetic Society and Gabric Diabetic Society for their collaboration. We sincerely appreciate all the subjects for their participation in this study.


This study was funded by Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and DieteticsTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Laboratory of Nutrition Research, National Research Institute and Faculty of Nutrition and Food TechnologyShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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