Short-term effects of a green coffee extract-, Garcinia c ambogia- and l-carnitine-containing chewing gum on snack intake and appetite regulation

Abstract

Introduction

Different studies have assessed the influence of chewing gum to aid control of appetite and reduce food intake.

Purpose

The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of chewing gum on satiety, food hedonics and snack intake and to explore the potential effects of the combination of Garcinia c ambogia, green coffee extract and l-carnitine on satiety, when administered in a gum format.

Methods

This was a prospective study in which 57 subjects randomly received three kinds of treatments, in a crossover design: (1) active gum; (2) placebo gum; and (3) no gum. Food preferences and appetite sensations were evaluated by means of the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire and visual analog scales.

Results

There was a significant reduction in low-fat sweet snack intake with placebo gum and the active gum compared to no gum and a reduction in high-fat sweet snack intake with the active gum compared to placebo gum and no gum. Total caloric intake was only reduced in the active gum condition. Both the active and placebo gum conditions significantly reduced hunger and prospective food consumption and increased fullness compared to no gum and were associated with a reduced wanting for sweet food in the LFPQ, consistent in a reduction in the relative preference for sweet snacks versus savoury snacks.

Conclusion

This study supports the notion that chewing gum containing nutraceutical products might aid in the control over snack intake and reduce hunger sensations.

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Acknowledgements

This study was supported by grants from the University of La Pampa and from ELEA Laboratories S.A.C.I.F. Marcos A. Mayer, Cecilia Bobillo and Belisario E. Fernández are members of the Carrera del Investigador Científico y Tecnológico (CONICET) of Argentina.

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Correspondence to Marcos A. Mayer.

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Conflict of interest

C. Bobillo, G. Finlayson, A. Martínez, D. Fischman, A. Beneitez, A.J. Ferrero, B.E. Fernández and M.A. Mayer have no conflicts of interest.

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Bobillo, C., Finlayson, G., Martínez, A. et al. Short-term effects of a green coffee extract-, Garcinia c ambogia- and l-carnitine-containing chewing gum on snack intake and appetite regulation. Eur J Nutr 57, 607–615 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-016-1347-1

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Keywords

  • Green coffee
  • Garcinia c ambogia
  • l-Carnitine
  • Chewing gum
  • Satiety