Coffee and oxidative stress: a human intervention study
- 892 Downloads
Coffee is known to contain phytochemicals with antioxidant potential. The aim of this study was to investigate possible antioxidant effects of coffee in healthy human volunteers.
A placebo-controlled intervention trial was carried out on 160 healthy human subjects, randomised into three groups, receiving 3 or 5 cups of study coffee or water per day, for 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken before, during, and after the intervention. Serum was used for analysis of blood lipids and standard clinical chemistry analytes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated, and DNA damage (strand breaks and oxidised bases) was measured with the comet assay. The lipid oxidation product isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2α was assayed in urine samples by LC–MS/MS.
There was no significant effect of coffee consumption on the markers of oxidation of DNA and lipids. Creatinine (in serum) increased by a few per cent in all groups, and the liver enzyme γ-glutamyl transaminase was significantly elevated in serum in the 5 cups/day group. Other clinical markers (including glucose and insulin), cholesterol, triacylglycerides, and inflammatory markers were unchanged. There was no effect of coffee on blood pressure.
In a carefully controlled clinical trial with healthy subjects, up to 5 cups of coffee per day had no detectable effect, either beneficial or harmful, on human health.
KeywordsHuman intervention trial Coffee DNA oxidation Lipid oxidation
We thank Dr L. Wsolova (Slovak Medical University) for carrying out statistical analyses. We are grateful to Hoffmann La Roche for supplying Ro 19-8022. This work was funded by Kraft Foods R & D Inc. and University of Oslo.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interests
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest. Thomas Hatzold and Philip Marc Stavro at the time when the study was conducted were employees of Kraft Foods R&D Inc., Zweigniederlassung Muenchen, Muenchen, Germany.
- 1.Matusheshki NV, Bidel S, Tuomilehto J (2012) Coffee and type 2 diabetes risk. In: Chu Y-F (ed) Coffee. Emerging health effects and disease prevention. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, pp 141–179Google Scholar
- 2.Lim J-W, Tan E-K (2012) Coffee and Parkinson’s disease. In: Chu Y-F (ed) Coffee. Emerging health effects and disease prevention. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, pp 111–122Google Scholar
- 3.Lindsay J, Carmichael P-H, Kröger E, Laurin D (2012) Coffee and Alzheimer’s disease—epidemiologic evidence. In: Chu Y-F (ed) Coffee. Emerging health effects and disease prevention. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, pp 97–110Google Scholar
- 4.Muriel P, Arauz J (2012) Coffee and liver health. In: Chu Y-F (ed) Coffee. Emerging health effects and disease prevention. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, pp 123–139Google Scholar
- 6.Huber WW, Parzefall W (2005) Modification of N-acetyltransferases and glutathione S-transferases by coffee components: possible relevance for cancer risk. In: Sies Helmut, Packer Lester (eds) Methods in enzymology, vol 401, Gluthione transferases and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidasesAcademic Press, Massachusetts, pp 307–341Google Scholar
- 7.Huber WW, Rossmanith W, Grusch M, Haslinger E, Prustomersky S, Peter-Vörösmarty B, Parzefall W, Scharf G, Schulte-Hermann R (2008) Effects of coffee and its chemopreventive components kahweol and cafestol on cytochrome P450 and sulfotransferase in rat liver. Food Chem Toxicol 46:1230–1238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Cavin C, Marin-Kuan M, Langouët S, Bezençon C, Guignard G, Verguet C, Piguet D, Holzhäuser D, Cornaz R, Schilter B (2008) Induction of Nrf2-mediated cellular defenses and alteration of phase I activities as mechanisms of chemoprotective effects of coffee in the liver. Food Chem Toxicol 46:1239–1248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Higgins LG, Cavin C, Itoh K, Yamamoto M, Hayes JD (2008) Induction of cancer chemopreventive enzymes by coffee is mediated by transcription factor Nrf2. Evidence that the coffee-specific diterpenes cafestol and kahweol confer protection against acrolein. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 226:328–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.Mursu J, Voutilainen S, Nurmi T, Alfthan G, Virtanen JK, Rissanen TH, Happonen P, Nyyssönen K, Kaikkonen J, Salonen R, Salonen JT (2005) The effects of coffee consumption on lipid peroxidation and plasma total homocysteine concentrations: a clinical trial. Free Radic Biol Med 38:527–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Steinkellner H, Hoelzl C, Uhl M, Cavin C, Haidinger G, Gsur A, Schmid R, Kundi M, Bichler J, Knasmüller S (2005) Coffee consumption induces GSTP in plasma and protects lymphocytes against (±)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide induced DNA-damage: results of controlled human intervention trials. Mutat Res Fundam Mole Mech Mutagen 591:264–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.Bichler J, Cavin C, Simic T, Chakraborty A, Ferk F, Hoelzl C, Schulte-Hermann R, Kundi M, Haidinger G, Angelis K, Knasmüller S (2007) Coffee consumption protects human lymphocytes against oxidative and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole acetate (Trp-P-2) induced DNA-damage: results of an experimental study with human volunteers. Food Chem Toxicol 45:1428–1436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 19.Misik M, Hoelzl C, Wagner KH, Cavin C, Moser B, Kundi M, Simic T, Elbling L, Kager N, Ferk F, Ehrlich V, Nersesyan A, Dusinska M, Schilter B, Knasmüller S (2010) Impact of paper filtered coffee on oxidative DNA-damage: results of a clinical trial. Mutat Res Fundam Mole Mech Mutagen 692:42–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Hoelzl C, Knasmüller S, Wagner KH, Elbling L, Huber W, Kager N, Ferk F, Ehrlich V, Nersesyan A, Neubauer O, Desmarchelier A, Marin-Kuan M, Delatour T, Verguet C, Bezençon C, Besson A, Grathwohl D, Simic T, Kundi M, Schilter B, Cavin C (2010) Instant coffee with high chlorogenic acid levels protects humans against oxidative damage of macromolecules. Mol Nutr Food Res 54:1722–1733CrossRefGoogle Scholar