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Controlling type-2 diabetes by inclusion of Cr-enriched yeast bread in the daily dietary pattern: a randomized clinical trial



Chromium (Cr)-enriched yeast supplementation to whole wheat bread (WWCrB) has been shown to ameliorate postprandial glycemic response in healthy subjects. The present study investigates the long-term benefit of WWCrB consumption for patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).


Thirty patients with T2DM were randomly assigned to a group receiving WWCrB or the plain whole wheat bread (WWB) group. Plasma glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and insulin resistance were determined, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at the beginning and the end of the dietary intervention, which lasted for 12 weeks. Biochemical parameters related to the disease, markers of inflammation as well as body weight and energy balance were examined.


At the end of the study, subjects of WWCrB group exerted lower levels of glucose, insulin and HbA1c and improved insulin resistance (P < 0.05 against before treatment). Area under the glucose curve attained during OGTT decreased after the intervention (28,117.5 ± 1266.4 vs. 31,588.5 ± 1187.5 mg min/dL before treatment, P < 0.05) with significantly lower values of glucose concentration at 0 and 60 min. A significant reduction in body weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) was observed (P < 0.05 against before treatment). Markers of inflammation and lipid profiles were not affected by WWCrB consumption.


Inclusion of WWCrB in the daily dietary pattern of diabetic patients resulted in improvement of glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, significant reduction in HbA1c, weight loss and lower SBP. Patients with inadequate glycemic control may benefit from the consumption of WWCrB.

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Authors are grateful to the volunteers who participated in the study and all the persons involved in the conduct of the study. This work was supported by a research grant from the Greek General Secretariat for Research and Technology (PAVET 2013) and ELBISCO S.A.

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Correspondence to Amalia E. Yanni.

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On behalf of all the authors, corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

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All human studies have been approved by the appropriate ethics committee and have therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments. All persons gave their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study.

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Yanni, A.E., Stamataki, N.S., Konstantopoulos, P. et al. Controlling type-2 diabetes by inclusion of Cr-enriched yeast bread in the daily dietary pattern: a randomized clinical trial. Eur J Nutr 57, 259–267 (2018).

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  • Bread
  • Type-2 diabetes mellitus
  • Cr-enriched yeast
  • Glucose tolerance
  • Insulin resistance
  • Weight management