Skip to main content
Log in

Consumption of a drink containing extruded sorghum reduces glycaemic response of the subsequent meal

  • Original Contribution
  • Published:
European Journal of Nutrition Aims and scope Submit manuscript



Glycaemic control is essential to prevent the manifestation of diabetes in predisposed individuals and the development of associated comorbidities. It is believed that sorghum may modulate the glucose response. In this study, we investigated the effect of extruded sorghum consumption, and the profile of bioactive compounds, on postprandial glycaemia of a subsequent meal in normal weight and normoglycaemic subjects.


This was a randomized, single-blind, crossover designed study. After a 12 h overnight fasting, ten subjects reported to the laboratory to participate in four experimental sessions, and consumed one of three sorghum test drinks: sorghum P 3-DXAs (with proanthocyanidins—P and rich in 3-deoxyanthocyanidins—3-DXAs); 3-DXAs (without proanthocyanidins and rich in 3-DXAs); and control (low in 3-DXAs and without proanthocyanidins); or a non-sorghum drink. 30 min later, the subjects consumed a glucose solution (25 g glucose). Glycaemic response was monitored at times 0 (before glucose solution), 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 min (after glucose solution consumption). The incremental areas under the glycaemic curve (iAUC) were calculated by the trapezoidal method.


Intake of P 3-DXAs drink before the glucose solution resulted in a postprandial iAUC lower than the other sorghum test drinks. Sorghum drinks minimized the postprandial glycaemia peak.


Sorghum drinks consumption, especially the P 3-DXAs drink, 30 min before the glucose solution resulted in lower iAUC compared to the non-sorghum drink, leading to a lower glycaemic response.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. American Diabetes Association (2014) Standards of medical care in diabetes—2014. Diabetes Care 37:S14–S80

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Stolar M (2010) Glycemic control and complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Med 123:S3–11

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Chung I-M, Kim E-H, Yeo M-A, Kim S-J, Seo MC, Moon H-I (2011) Antidiabetic effects of three Korean sorghum phenolic extracts in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Food Res Int 44:127–132

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Kim J, Park Y (2012) Anti-diabetic effect of sorghum extract on hepatic gluconeogenesis of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Nutr Metab 9:106

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Park JH, Lee SH, Chung I-M, Park Y (2012) Sorghum extract exerts an anti-diabetic effect by improving insulin sensitivity via PPAR-γ in mice fed a high-fat diet. Nutr Res Pract 6:322–327

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Taylor JR, Schober TJ, Bean SR (2006) Novel food and non-food uses for sorghum and millets. J Cereal Sci 44:252–271

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Prasad MPR, Rao BD, Kalpana K, Rao MV, Patil JV (2015) Glycaemic index and glycaemic load of sorghum products. J Sci Food Agric 95:1626–1630

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Chung I-M, Yong S-J, Lee J, Kim S-H (2013) Effect of genotype and cultivation location on β-sitosterol and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols in sorghum. Food Res Int 51:971–976

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Lakshmi KB, Vimala V (1996) Hypoglycemic effect of selected sorghum recipes. Nutr Res 16:1651–1658

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Poquette NM, Gu X, Lee SO (2014) Grain sorghum muffin reduces glucose and insulin responses in men. Food Funct 5:894–899

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Björck I, Elmståhl HL (2003) The glycaemic index: importance of dietary fibre and other food properties. Proc Nutr Soc 62:201–206

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Wolever TM, Jenkins DJ, Ocana AM, Rao VA, Collier GR (1988) Second-meal effect: low-glycemic-index foods eaten at dinner improve subsequent breakfast glycemic response. Am J Clin Nutr 48:1041–1047

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Mera R, Thompson H, Prasad C (1998) How to calculate sample size for an experiment: a case-based description. Nutr Neurosci 1:87–91

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Ton WTS, Almeida CdGd, Cardoso LdM, Girondoli YM, Pereira PF, Schitini JKVG, Candido FG, Arbex PM, Alfenas RdCG (2014) Effect of different protein types on second meal postprandial glycaemia in normal weight and normoglycemic subjects. Nutr Hosp 29:553–558

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Group WW (1986) Use and interpretation of anthropometric indicators of nutritional status. Bull World Health Organ 64:929

    Google Scholar 

  16. Lohman TG, Roche AF, Martorell R (1988) Anthropometric standardization reference manual. Human Kinetics Press, Champaign, IL

    Google Scholar 

  17. Durnin J, Womersley J (1974) Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years. Br J Nutr 32:77–97

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Vargas-Solórzano JW, Carvalho CWP, Takeiti CY, Ascheri JLR, Queiroz VAV (2014) Physicochemical properties of expanded extrudates from colored sorghum genotypes. Food Res Int 55:37–44

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Cardoso LM (2014) Sorghum: variability of nutrients and bioactive compounds and their heat processing stability. Department of Nutrition and Health. Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, p 124

    Google Scholar 

  20. Seino S, Shibasaki T, Minami K (2011) Dynamics of insulin secretion and the clinical implications for obesity and diabetes. J Clin Invest 121(6):2118–2125

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Ceriello A (2005) Postprandial hyperglycemia and diabetes complications is it time to treat? Diabetes 54:1–7

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Bantle JP, Wylie-Rosett J, Albright AL, Apovian CM, Clark NG, Franz MJ, Hoogwerf BJ, Lichtenstein AH, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian AD (2008) Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 31:S61–S78

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Mkandawire NL, Kaufman RC, Bean SR, Weller CL, Jackson DS, Rose DJ (2013) Effects of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) tannins on α-amylase activity and in vitro digestibility of starch in raw and processed flours. J Agric Food Chem 61:4448–4454

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Taylor RH, Griffiths C, Krzeminska K, Lawrie JA, Bennett CM, Goff DV, Sarson DL, Bloom SR (1982) Slow release dietary carbohydrate improves second meal tolerance. Am J Clin Nutr 35(6):1339–1346

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Ocana AM, Vuksan V, Cunnane SC, Jenkins M, Wong GS, Singer W, Bloom SR, Blendis LM et al (1990) Metabolic effects of reducing rate of glucose ingestion by single bolus versus continuous sipping. Diabetes 39(7):775–781

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Saini V (2010) Molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus. World J Diabetes 1:68–75

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Barros F, Awika J, Rooney LW (2014) Effect of molecular weight profile of sorghum proanthocyanidins on resistant starch formation. J Sci Food Agric 94:1212–1217

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Giuberti G, Gallo A, Cerioli C, Masoero F (2012) In vitro starch digestion and predicted glycemic index of cereal grains commonly utilized in pig nutrition. Anim Feed Sci Technol 174:163–173

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Miao M, Jiang B, Cui SW, Zhang T, Jin Z (2013) Slowly digestible starch–a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 55(12):1642–1657

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Fuentes-Zaragoza E, Riquelme-Navarrete M, Sánchez-Zapata E, Pérez-Álvarez J (2010) Resistant starch as functional ingredient: a review. Food Res Int 43:931–942

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Brennan MA, Derbyshire EJ, Brennan CS, Tiwari BK (2012) Impact of dietary fibre-enriched ready-to-eat extruded snacks on the postprandial glycaemic response of non-diabetic patients. Mol Nutr Food Res 56:834–837

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors thank the Embrapa Milho e Sorgo (Brazil), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG, Brazil), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Ensino Superior (CAPES, Brazil) and the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, Brazil) for granting of financial support for undergraduate research and scholarships.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Pamella Cristine Anunciação.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Anunciação, P.C., Cardoso, L.d., Queiroz, V.A.V. et al. Consumption of a drink containing extruded sorghum reduces glycaemic response of the subsequent meal. Eur J Nutr 57, 251–257 (2018).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: