European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 56, Issue 8, pp 2565–2575 | Cite as

Cheese consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis of prospective studies

  • Guo-Chong Chen
  • Yan Wang
  • Xing Tong
  • Ignatius M. Y. Szeto
  • Gerrit Smit
  • Zeng-Ning Li
  • Li-Qiang Qin
Original Contribution

Abstract

Purpose

Cheese contains a high content of saturated fatty acids but also lists of potentially beneficial nutrients. How long-term cheese consumption affects the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unclear. A meta-analysis of prospective observational studies was conducted to evaluate the risks of total CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke associated with cheese consumption.

Methods

Potentially eligible studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases and by carefully reviewing the bibliographies of retrieved publications and related reviews. The summary relative risks (RRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effects model.

Results

The final analyses included 15 prospective studies. Most of the studies excluded prevalent CVD at baseline (14/15) and had a duration >10 years (13/15). The summary RR for high vs. low cheese consumption was 0.90 (95 % CI 0.82–0.99) for total CVD (7 studies, 8076 events), 0.86 (95 % CI 0.77–0.96) for CHD (8 studies, 7631 events), and 0.90 (95 % CI 0.84–0.97) for stroke (7 studies, 10,449 events), respectively. The restricted cubic model indicated evidence of nonlinear relationships between cheese consumption and risks of total CVD (Pnonlinearity < 0.001) and stroke (Pnonlinearity = 0.015), with the largest risk reductions observed at the consumption of approximately 40 g/d.

Conclusions

This meta-analysis of prospective studies suggests a nonlinear inverse association between cheese consumption and risk of CVD.

Keywords

Dairy Cheese Cardiovascular disease Meta-analysis 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

394_2016_1292_MOESM1_ESM.docx (67 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 66 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guo-Chong Chen
    • 1
  • Yan Wang
    • 2
  • Xing Tong
    • 1
  • Ignatius M. Y. Szeto
    • 2
  • Gerrit Smit
    • 3
  • Zeng-Ning Li
    • 4
  • Li-Qiang Qin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public HealthSoochow UniversitySuzhouChina
  2. 2.Yili Innovation CenterInner Mongolia Yili Industrial Group Co., Ltd.HohhotChina
  3. 3.Yili R&D CenterWageningenThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Department of NutritionThe First Hospital of Hebei Medical UniversityShijiazhuangChina

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