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Caffeine and cardiovascular diseases: critical review of current research

Abstract

Caffeine is a most widely consumed physiological stimulant worldwide, which is consumed via natural sources, such as coffee and tea, and now marketed sources such as energy drinks and other dietary supplements. This wide use has led to concerns regarding the safety of caffeine and its proposed beneficial role in alertness, performance and energy expenditure and side effects in the cardiovascular system. The question remains “Which dose is safe?”, as the population does not appear to adhere to the strict guidelines listed on caffeine consumption. Studies in humans and animal models yield controversial results, which can be explained by population, type and dose of caffeine and low statistical power. This review will focus on comprehensive and critical review of the current literature and provide an avenue for further study.

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Zulli, A., Smith, R.M., Kubatka, P. et al. Caffeine and cardiovascular diseases: critical review of current research. Eur J Nutr 55, 1331–1343 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-016-1179-z

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Keywords

  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Caffeine
  • Cardioprotective effects
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical studies
  • Experimental studies