Effects of proanthocyanidin on oxidative stress biomarkers and adipokines in army cadets: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study
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The relatively recent advent of polyphenol supplement for exercise studies has been tested in a variety of forms and doses. However, the dose–response on adipokines and oxidative stress biomarker effect remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of intense, long-duration (48-h) exercise, and a single dose of proanthocyanidin, on plasma leptin, adiponectin, and electronegative low-density lipoprotein (LDL(−)) concentrations.
Fifty-four healthy male army cadets (22 ± 2 years) participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study and were distributed between control (CG; n = 27) and supplemented groups (SG; n = 27). Immediately before the start of the exercise, both CG and SG groups received a capsule containing starch (200 mg) or proanthocyanidin (dry Vitis vinifera extract, 200 mg), respectively. Following a 12-h fasting period, the plasma adiponectin, leptin, and LDL(−) concentrations were measured prior to the start of the exercise after 24 and 48 h of military training, and after 24 h of rest. The effects of the proanthocyanidin (supplement), exercise (time), and their interaction were investigated using factorial two-way ANOVA.
Plasma leptin concentration was only influenced by exercise (p = 0.001). Plasma adiponectin concentration was influenced by exercise (p = 0.037), and by the exercise x supplement interaction (p = 0.033). LDL(−) was influenced by the supplement (p = 0.001), exercise (p = 0.001), and their interaction (p = 0.001).
A single dose of proanthocyanidin (200 mg) was able to reduce LDL(−) concentration and increase plasma adiponectin concentration after 24 h of rest in SG group, indicating its potential protective action.
KeywordsLow-density lipoprotein Adiponectin Leptin Exercise Polyphenols Army cadets
The authors would like to thank all of the army cadets that participated in this study and Mario Vila Pitaluga Filho for his assistance in the organization of the collection data. This research was supported by Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ).
Koury JC, Passos MC, Oliveira CF, Gonçalves M, and Daleprane JB participated in the conception and design of the study; generation, collection, assembly, analysis, and interpretation of data; and drafting, revision, and final approval of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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