A higher Mediterranean diet adherence and exercise practice are associated with a healthier drinking profile in a healthy Spanish adult population
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Very few studies have examined the association between beverage intake patterns and healthy lifestyle characteristics. Most of the research that has been carried out focuses on the consumption of soft drinks or alcohol and ignores the overall beverage pattern. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between consumption of different types of beverage and physical exercise practice and MedDiet adherence.
Cross-sectional information about fluid intake from different types of beverages was collected in 1262 men and women between 18 and 70 years old, using a 24-h fluid-specific diary over seven consecutive days. Physical exercise was evaluated with a self-reported questionnaire, and MedDiet adherence was assessed using a validated 14-item questionnaire. Both variables were classified into three categories.
Individuals with greater adherence to the MedDiet showed a higher intake of water and wine and a lower consumption of sweet regular beverages. Participants who engaged in more physical exercise consumed more water, milk and derivatives, juices and wine and less sweet regular beverages. Compared to the lowest category, the possibility of meeting the EFSA recommendations of total fluid intake was greater in individuals with eight or more points on the MedDiet adherence questionnaire [OR 1.94; 95 % CI 1.25–3.01] and in those who practice physical exercise three times a week or more [OR 1.71; 95 % CI 1.22–2.39]. Participants with a healthier lifestyle had a lower risk of exceeding the WHO’s free-sugar recommendations only from beverages.
Participants with greater adherence to the MedDiet and who engaged in more physical exercise exhibit a healthier pattern of fluid intake.
KeywordsFluid intake Mediterranean diet Physical exercise Adult Beverage
European Food Safety Agency
Institute of Medicine
Body mass index
World Health Organization
The authors are indebted to the participants in the study for their collaboration. The presented data was collected by TNS.
Compliance with ethical standard
Conflict of interest
C.F.-P. reports no conflicts of interest. J.S.-S is member of the scientific advisory board on fluid intake of Danone Research. J.S.-S. and N.B. have received consultancies from Danone S.A.
All the participants give their consent prior to the inclusion in the study. University Hospital of Sant Joan de Reus Ethics Committee gives their approval to the study protocol (ref. C.E.I.C-012).
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