European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 56, Issue 2, pp 727–738

The effect of three different ad libitum diets for weight loss maintenance: a randomized 18-month trial

  • Anette Due
  • Thomas M. Larsen
  • Huiling Mu
  • Kjeld Hermansen
  • Steen Stender
  • Søren Toubro
  • David B. Allison
  • Arne Astrup
Original Contribution

Abstract

Purpose

To test the effect of three diets in their ability to sustain weight loss and improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers after 18-month intervention.

Methods

Following a ≥8 % weight loss, 131 healthy, overweight/obese (BMI ± SD 31.5 ± 2.6 kg/m2) men (n = 55) and women (n = 76) aged 28.2 ± 4.8 years were randomized to either 1. Moderate fat (40 E%) with 20 E% MUFA and low in glycemic index (GI) (MUFA, n = 54), 2. Low fat (25 E%) and medium in GI (LF, n = 51) or 3. Control (35 E% fat) and high in GI (CTR, n = 26) all with similar protein content, and all provided ad libitum. First 6-month intervention with 100 % food provision (previously reported) following 12 months of moderately intensive intervention with 20 % food provision now reported.

Results

Attrition rate was higher in MUFA (63 %) than in LF (37 %, P = 0.019) and CTR (42 %, P = 0.09) group. Weight regain in completers was not different between groups (mean ± SEM), MUFA 7.1 ± 2.1 % versus LF 5.6 ± 1.3 % versus CTR 7.2 ± 1.5 %, nor was body fat regain, MUFA 4.8 ± 1.0 % versus LF 4.7 ± 0.8 % versus CTR 5.7 ± 0.6 %. The MUFA group reduced LDL/HDL ratio by −0.47 ± 0.09 compared with −0.23 ± 0.11 in LF (P < 0.05) and 0.06 ± 0.14 (P < 0.005) in CTR groups.

Conclusions

Weight regain or body composition did not differ between diets over 18 months. No effects on risk markers for T2D or CVD were found, with the exception of an improvement in the LDL/HDL ratio by the MUFA diet compared to the CTR diet. The LF diet was generally more satisfactory and the MUFA diet seemed more difficult to follow.

Keywords

Weight loss Weight maintenance Mediterranean diet Cardiovascular disease Dietary intervention 

Supplementary material

394_2015_1116_MOESM1_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 14 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anette Due
    • 1
    • 7
  • Thomas M. Larsen
    • 1
  • Huiling Mu
    • 2
  • Kjeld Hermansen
    • 3
  • Steen Stender
    • 4
  • Søren Toubro
    • 5
    • 8
  • David B. Allison
    • 6
  • Arne Astrup
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Nutrition, Exercise and SportsUniversity of CopenhagenFrederiksberg CDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutics and Analytical Chemistry, University of Copenhagen and BiocentrumTechnical University of DenmarkCopenhagenDenmark
  3. 3.Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine MEAAarhus University HospitalAarhus CDenmark
  4. 4.Department of Clinical BiochemistryCopenhagen University HospitalGentofteDenmark
  5. 5.Research UnitUniversitetsparken 2RoskildeDenmark
  6. 6.Department of Biostatistics, Nutrition Obesity Research CenterUniversity of AlabamaBirminghamUSA
  7. 7.Department of Nutrition and Midwifery, Faculty of Health and TechnologyMetropolitan University CollegeCopenhagenDenmark
  8. 8.Novo Nordisk, Depart 4177 GLP-1 & ObesitySøborgDenmark

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