Vitamin D3 supplementation does not modify cardiovascular risk profile of adults with inadequate vitamin D status
- 389 Downloads
The Nutrition Societies in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland recommend a daily intake of 20 µg vitamin D3 for adults when endogenous synthesis is absent. The current study aimed to elucidate whether this vitamin D3 dose impacts cardiovascular risk markers of adults during the winter months.
The study was conducted in Halle (Saale), Germany (51o northern latitude) as a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomised trial (from January to April). A total of 105 apparently healthy subjects (male and female, 20–71 years old) were included. Subjects were randomly allocated to two groups. One group received a daily 20-µg vitamin D3 dose (n = 54), and the other group received a placebo (n = 51) for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included blood pressure, heart rate, concentrations of renin, aldosterone, serum lipids and vascular calcification markers, and haematologic variables such as pro-inflammatory monocytes.
Blood pressure and systemic cardiovascular risk markers remained unchanged by vitamin D3 supplementation, although serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 increased from 38 ± 14 to 73 ± 16 nmol/L at week 12. The placebo and vitamin D groups did not differ in their final cardiovascular risk profile.
Daily supplementation of 20 µg vitamin D3 during winter is unlikely to change cardiovascular risk profile.
KeywordsVitamin D3 Supplementation Cardiovascular risk Monocyte subsets Adults
Body mass index
Bone morphogenetic protein 2
Coefficient of variance
Dickkopf-related protein 1
Fluorescence-activated cell sorting
Mean corpuscular haemoglobin
Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration
Mean corpuscular volume
Major histocompatibility complex
Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand
Randomised controlled trial
Large ribosomal protein
Rate pressure product
Runt-related transcription factor 2
Tumour necrosis factor α
Toll-like receptor 2
Vitamin D receptor
This study was supported by a Grant from The Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany (01EA1323A). We thank B. Heinze and M. Hajri for their excellent technical assistance and record keeping. We thank Dr. B. Ludwig-Kraus and colleagues for determination of differential blood counts at the central laboratory unit of the University Hospital Halle (UKH, Ernst-Grube-Str. 40, 06120 Halle/Saale, Germany).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.Kühn T, Kaaks R, Teucher B, Hirche F, Dierkes J, Weikert C, Katzke V, Boeing H, Stangl GI, Buijsse B (2013) Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and its genetic determinants in relation to incident myocardial infarction and stroke in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC)-Germany study. PLoS ONE 8:e69080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 2.Wang L, Song Y, Manson JE, Pilz S, März W, Michaëlsson K, Lundqvist A, Jassal SK, Barrett-Connor E, Zhang C, Eaton CB, May HT, Anderson JL, Sesso HD (2012) Circulating 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and risk of cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 5:819–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 3.Schöttker B, Jorde R, Peasey A, Thorand B, Jansen EH, Groot Ld, Streppel M, Gardiner J, Ordóñez-Mena JM, Perna L, Wilsgaard T, Rathmann W, Feskens E, Kampman E, Siganos G, Njølstad I, Mathiesen EB, Kubínová R, Pająk A, Topor-Madry R, Tamosiunas A, Hughes M, Kee F, Bobak M, Trichopoulou A, Boffetta P, Brenner H (2014) Vitamin D and mortality: meta-analysis of individual participant data from a large consortium of cohort studies from Europe and the United States. BMJ 348:g3656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 4.Chowdhury R, Kunutsor S, Vitezova A, Oliver-Williams C, Chowdhury S, Kiefte-de-Jong JC, Khan H, Baena CP, Prabhakaran D, Hoshen MB, Feldman BS, Pan A, Johnson L, Crowe F, Hu FB, Franco OH (2014) Vitamin D and risk of cause specific death: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational cohort and randomised intervention studies. BMJ 348:g1903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Wood AD, Secombes KR, Thies F, Aucott L, Black AJ, Mavroeidi A, Simpson WG, Fraser WD, Reid DM, Macdonald HM (2012) Vitamin D3 supplementation has no effect on conventional cardiovascular risk factors: a parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled RCT. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97:3557–3568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.Schleithoff SS, Zittermann A, Tenderich G, Berthold HK, Stehle P, Koerfer R (2006) Vitamin D supplementation improves cytokine profiles in patients with congestive heart failure: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 83:754–759Google Scholar
- 21.Kühn T, Kaaks R, Teucher B, Hirche F, Dierkes J, Weikert C, Katzke V, Boeing H, Stangl GI, Buijsse B (2014) Dietary, lifestyle, and genetic determinants of vitamin D status: a cross-sectional analysis from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany study. Eur J Nutr 53:731–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.Sabroe I, Dower SK, Whyte MK (2010) The role of Toll-like receptors in the regulation of neutrophil migration, activation, and apoptosis. Clin Infect Dis 41(Suppl 7):S421–S426Google Scholar
- 36.Wang L, Hu XB, Zhang W, Wu LD, Liu YS, Hu B, Bi CL, Chen YF, Liu XX, Ge C, Zhang Y, Zhang M (2013) Dickkopf-1 as a novel predictor is associated with risk stratification by GRACE risk scores for predictive value in patients with acute coronary syndrome: a retrospective research. PLoS ONE 8:e54731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 37.Fry CM, Sanders TA (2015) Vitamin D and risk of CVD: a review of the evidence. Proc Nutr Soc 20:1–13Google Scholar
- 41.Martins D, Wolf M, Pan D, Zadshir A, Tareen N, Thadhani R, Felsenfeld A, Levine B, Mehrotra R, Norris K (2007) Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the United States: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Intern Med 167:1159–1165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 46.Grubczak K, Lipinska D, Eljaszewicz A, Singh P, Radzikowska U, Miklasz P, Dabrowska M, Jablonska E, Bodzenta-Lukaszyk A, Moniuszko M (2015) Vitamin D3 treatment decreases frequencies of CD16-positive and TNF-α-secreting monocytes in asthmatic patients. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 166:170–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 49.Saab G, Young DO, Gincherman Y, Giles K, Norwood K, Coyne DW (2007) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and the safety and effectiveness of monthly ergocalciferol in hemodialysis patients. Nephron Clin Pract 105:c132–c138Google Scholar
- 51.Lang E, Jilani K, Bissinger R, Rexhepaj R, Zelenak C, Lupescu A, Lang F, Qadri SM (2015) Vitamin D-rich diet in mice modulates erythrocyte survival. Kidney Blood Press Res 40:403–412Google Scholar
- 52.Ross AC, Taylo CL, Yaktine AL, Valle HB (2011) Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D: Institute of Medicine (US) Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium. The National Academies Collection: Reports funded by National Institutes of HealthGoogle Scholar