Ellagic acid in Emblica officinalis exerts anti-diabetic activity through the action on β-cells of pancreas
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The present study was undertaken to explore the possible anti-diabetic mechanism(s) of Emblica officinalis (EO) and its active constituent, ellagic acid (EA), in vitro and in vivo.
Neonatal streptozotocin-induced non-obese type 2 diabetic rats were treated with a methanolic extract of EO (250 or 500 mg/kg) for 28 days, and blood glucose, serum insulin, and plasma antioxidant status were measured. Insulin and glucagon immunostaining and morphometry were performed in pancreatic section, and liver TBARS and GSH levels were measured. Additionally, EA was tested for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and glucose tolerance test.
Treatment with EO extract resulted in a significant decrease in the fasting blood glucose in a dose- and time-dependent manner in the diabetic rats. It significantly increased serum insulin in the diabetic rats in a dose-dependent manner. Insulin-to-glucose ratio was also increased by EO treatment. Immunostaining of pancreas showed that EO250 increased β-cell size, but EO500 increased β-cells number in diabetic rats. EO significantly increased plasma total antioxidants and liver GSH and decreased liver TBARS. EA stimulated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from isolated islets and decreased glucose intolerance in diabetic rats.
Ellagic acid in EO exerts anti-diabetic activity through the action on β-cells of pancreas that stimulates insulin secretion and decreases glucose intolerance.
KeywordsEmblica officinalis Non-obese type 2 diabetes β-Cell function Antioxidant Ellagic acid Insulin secretion
This work was supported by a HEC Grant (No. 20-1963/R&D/10/9164) to Md. Hafizur Rahman from the Higher Education Commission (HEC), Pakistan. We are thankful to the Asian Network of Research on Antidiabetic Plants (ANRAP) for financial support to Abdul Hameed for a visit to BIRDEM, Dhaka, Bangladesh. We highly acknowledge Sidra Chisti for skillful technical assistance in animal handling, feeding extract and blood glucose estimation. We would like to show our gratitude to Prof. Dr. Rafat Ali Siddiqui (Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA) and Dr. Shahidul Islam (Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, USA) for critical reading of the manuscript and their comments.
R M. H. and N. F. designed the research. R. M. H. and N. F. conducted the research, analyzed the data and also wrote the manuscript. R. M. H. analyzed the immunohistochemical data. S. A., M. N., and N. F. were involved in HPLC analysis. A. H. was involved in islet isolation and insulin secretion assay. N. K. was involved in technical support for microscopic analysis and morphometry and writing of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
We declare that we have no conflict of interest.
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