Association between body weight and composition and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in the Diabetes Prevention Program
We examined associations between body weight and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (25OHD) in prediabetes and sought to estimate the impact of adiposity on these associations.
The study was conducted in the placebo (n = 1082) and intensive lifestyle (n = 1079) groups of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a multicenter trial to prevent type 2 diabetes in adults with prediabetes. Weight and 25OHD were measured at baseline, month 6, years 1 and 2. In a subset (n = 584), visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adiposity were assessed by computed tomography at baseline and year 1.
In cross-sectional analyses, baseline body weight, total fat, VAT, and SAT were inversely associated with plasma 25OHD concentration after multivariable adjustment. VAT accounted for 40 % [95 % CI 11, 69] of the association of body weight with plasma 25OHD concentration. There was no significant contribution by total fat or SAT. Two-year changes in plasma 25OHD concentration varied inversely with changes in body weight (p < 0.0001). One-year changes in total fat, VAT, or SAT were not significant mediators of the association between change in plasma 25OHD concentration and body weight.
Our study found an inverse association between body weight and plasma 25OHD concentration at baseline and over a 2-year period in adults with prediabetes. These findings in the DPP, a weight loss intervention study, raise the possibility that weight loss increases plasma 25OHD concentration. Whether adiposity mediates this association remains inconclusive.
KeywordsBody composition Diabetes Prevention Program Body weight Obesity Vitamin D Adipose tissue
We acknowledge the commitment and dedication of the DPP participants.
L.C, J.W, K.D.A, G.A.B, A.G.P were responsible for the study design. CG conducted the 25OHD assay analysis. J.N was responsible for the statistical analysis. All authors were involved in the interpretation of the data. All authors and the DPP Publications and Ancillary Studies Committees were involved in the critical revision of the manuscript for intellectual content.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The present ancillary study was supported by research Grant R01DK79003 (to AGP) from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease; UL1RR025752 (to Tufts University) from the National Center for Research Resources and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health; a research grant by the Gerald J. and Dorothy R. Friedman Foundation (to LC); the US Department of Agriculture Agreement 58-1950-9001 (to BDH). The parent DPP study was supported by research Grant UO1DK48489 from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) of the National Institutes of Health to the DPP clinical centers and the Coordinating Center for the design and conduct of the DPP study. The Southwestern American Indian Centers were supported directly by the NIDDK, including its Intramural Research Program, and the Indian Health Service. The General Clinical Research Center Program, National Center for Research Resources, supported data collection at many of the clinical centers. Funding was also provided by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute on Aging, the National Eye Institute, the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, the Office of Research on Women’s Health, the National Center for Minority Health and Human Disease, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Indian Health Service, and the American Diabetes Association. Lipha (Merck-Sante) provided medication. LifeScan Inc., Merck-Medco Managed Care, Inc., and Merck and Co. donated materials, equipment, or medicines for concomitant conditions.
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