Effect of virgin olive oil and thyme phenolic compounds on blood lipid profile: implications of human gut microbiota

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate the effect of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds (PC) alone or in combination with thyme PC on blood lipid profile from hypercholesterolemic humans, and whether the changes generated are related with changes in gut microbiota populations and activities.

Methods

A randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover human trial (n = 12) was carried out. Participants ingested 25 mL/day for 3 weeks, preceded by 2-week washout periods, three raw virgin olive oils differing in the concentration and origin of PC: (1) a virgin olive oil (OO) naturally containing 80 mg PC/kg, (VOO), (2) a PC-enriched virgin olive oil containing 500 mg PC/kg, from OO (FVOO), and (3) a PC-enriched virgin olive oil containing a mixture of 500 mg PC/kg from OO and thyme, 1:1 (FVOOT). Blood lipid values and faecal quantitative changes in microbial populations, short chain fatty acids, cholesterol microbial metabolites, bile acids, and phenolic metabolites were analysed.

Results

FVOOT decreased seric ox-LDL concentrations compared with pre-FVOOT, and increased numbers of bifidobacteria and the levels of the phenolic metabolite protocatechuic acid compared to VOO (P < 0.05). FVOO did not lead to changes in blood lipid profile nor quantitative changes in the microbial populations analysed, but increased the coprostanone compared to FVOOT (P < 0.05), and the levels of the faecal hydroxytyrosol and dihydroxyphenylacetic acids, compared with pre-intervention values and to VOO, respectively (P < 0.05).

Conclusion

The ingestion of a PC-enriched virgin olive oil, containing a mixture of olive oil and thyme PC for 3 weeks, decreases blood ox-LDL in hypercholesterolemic humans. This cardio-protective effect could be mediated by the increases in populations of bifidobacteria together with increases in PC microbial metabolites with antioxidant activities.

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Fig. 1

Abbreviations

CVD:

Cardiovascular diseases

FC:

Flow cytometry

FISH:

Fluorescence in situ hybridization

FSC:

Forward scatter detector

FVOO:

Phenolic compounds-enriched virgin olive oil containing 500 mg phenolic compounds/kg, from olive oil

FVOOT:

Phenolic compounds-enriched virgin olive oil containing a mixture of 500 mg phenolic compounds/kg, from olive oil and thyme, 1:1

MD:

Mediterranean diet

PC:

Phenolic compounds

PCA:

Protocatechuic acid

SCFA:

Short chain fatty acids

SSC:

Side scatter detector

VOO:

Virgin olive oil naturally containing 80 mg of phenolic compounds/kg

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Acknowledgments

This work was supported by Instituto de Salud Carlos III FEDER (CB06/03/0028, CD10/00224, CP06/00100, CA11/00215), Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (AGL2012-40144-C03-01, AGL2012-40144-C03-02, AGL2012-40144-C03-03, FPI:BES-2010-040766), Agency for Management of University and Research Grants (2009 SGR 1195).

We thank M Angels Calvo for the growth of pure cultures, Malén Massot for helping us in the elaboration of the FISH-FC protocol, Óscar Fornas and Cristina Llop for their technical assistance, and Borges Mediterranean Group for providing the common olive oil used in this study.

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Martín-Peláez, S., Mosele, J., Pizarro, N. et al. Effect of virgin olive oil and thyme phenolic compounds on blood lipid profile: implications of human gut microbiota. Eur J Nutr 56, 119–131 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-015-1063-2

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Keywords

  • Bifidobacteria
  • Gut microbiota
  • ox-LDL
  • Cholesterol
  • Phenolic compounds
  • Prebiotic
  • Virgin olive oil