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European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 56, Issue 1, pp 99–106 | Cite as

Gastrointestinal stability of urolithins: an in vitro approach

  • Pedro MenaEmail author
  • Margherita Dall’Asta
  • Luca Calani
  • Furio Brighenti
  • Daniele Del Rio
Original Contribution

Abstract

Purpose

Urolithins are bioactive ellagitannin-derived metabolites showing a wide phenotypic variation in their production by the gut microbiota. This work represents a first in vitro step toward the development of new strategies focused on the oral supplementation of urolithins with the aim of overcoming their selective production and making their putative health benefits available for the whole population.

Methods

In order to study their gastrointestinal stability, urolithin A, urolithin B, and urolithin B-glucuronide, as well as ellagic acid, were subjected to a simulated gastrointestinal digestion model consisting of oral, gastric, and pancreatic steps followed by a 24-h fecal fermentation. The effect of the entero-hepatic recirculation on urolithin B-glucuronide, a phase II metabolite, was also investigated.

Results

Urolithin B was the molecule able to resist to a greater extent the conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, while urolithin A and ellagic acid were drastically unstable during the colonic step. Conjugation with glucuronic acid, ideally occurring in the liver, conferred to urolithin B an increased stability, which may be interesting in the framework of entero-hepatic recirculation.

Conclusion

This set of experiments lets hypothesize that orally supplemented urolithins may come into contact with the colonic epithelium and become accessible for uptake or exert local anti-inflammatory activity, overcoming the limitations of enterotypes unable to convert ellagitannins into these putatively beneficial metabolites.

Keywords

Ellagitannin Ellagic acid Microbial metabolite Gastrointestinal tract Colonic fermentation Bioaccessibility 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was partially supported by a research grant from the US National Processed Raspberry Council (contract no. 2015-7). PM was funded by a grant of the Postdoctoral Fellowship Programme from Fundación Séneca (Murcia Region, Spain).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pedro Mena
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Margherita Dall’Asta
    • 1
    • 2
  • Luca Calani
    • 1
    • 2
  • Furio Brighenti
    • 2
  • Daniele Del Rio
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.The Laboratory of Phytochemicals in Physiology, LS9 InterLab Group, Department of Food ScienceUniversity of ParmaParmaItaly
  2. 2.Human Nutrition Unit, Department of Food ScienceUniversity of ParmaParmaItaly
  3. 3.The Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme (NNEdPro)University of CambridgeCambridgeUK

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