Advertisement

European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 55, Issue 2, pp 577–587 | Cite as

Association between yogurt consumption, dietary patterns, and cardio-metabolic risk factors

  • Hubert Cormier
  • Élisabeth Thifault
  • Véronique Garneau
  • Angelo Tremblay
  • Vicky Drapeau
  • Louis Pérusse
  • Marie-Claude VohlEmail author
Original Contribution

Abstract

Purpose

To examine whether yogurt consumption is associated with a healthier dietary pattern and with a better cardio-metabolic risk profile among healthy individuals classified on the basis of their body mass index (BMI).

Methods

A 91-item food frequency questionnaire, including data on yogurt consumption, was administered to 664 subjects from the INFOGENE study. After principal component analysis, two factors were retained, thus classified as the Prudent and Western dietary patterns.

Results

Yogurt was a significant contributor to the Prudent dietary pattern. Moreover, yogurt consumption was associated with lower body weight, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist circumference and tended to be associated with a lower BMI. Consumers had lower levels of fasting total cholesterol and insulin. Consumers of yogurt had a positive Prudent dietary pattern mean score, while the opposite trend was observed in non-consumers of yogurt. Overweight/obese individuals who were consumers of yogurts exhibited a more favorable cardio-metabolic profile characterized by lower plasma triglyceride and insulin levels than non-consumers within the same range of BMI. There was no difference in total yogurt consumption between normal-weight individuals and overweight/obese individuals. However, normal-weight subjects had more daily servings of high-fat yogurt and less daily servings of fat-free yogurt compared to overweight/obese individuals.

Conclusions

Being a significant contributor to the Prudent dietary pattern, yogurt consumption may be associated with healthy eating. Also, yogurt consumption may be associated with lower anthropometric indicators and a more beneficial cardio-metabolic risk profile in overweight/obese individuals.

Keywords

Yogurt Nutrition Cardio-metabolic risk factors Insulin Triglycerides Dietary patterns 

Abbreviations

BMI

Body mass index

CVD

Cardiovascular diseases

FFQ

Food frequency questionnaire

LABSAP

Laboratory of physical activity of Laval University

HDL-C

High-density lipoprotein cholesterol

LDL-C

Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

ApoB100

Apolipoprotein B-100

HOMA-IR

Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance

CRP

Plasma C-reactive protein

GLM

General linear model

DGAI

Dietary Guidelines Adherence Index

Notes

Acknowledgments

We express our gratitude to the participants involved in the study for their time and involvement. We thank Ann-Marie Paradis, Marie-Ève Bouchard, Steve Amireault, Diane Drolet, and Dominique Beaulieu for their collaboration in the recruitment of the participants, the study coordination, and data collection. This work received funding by Danone Nutricia Research and Danone Canada. Hubert Cormier is the recipient of the Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships Doctoral Awards from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR). Angelo Tremblay holds a Canada Research Chair in Environment and Energy Balance. Marie-Claude Vohl holds a Canada Research Chair in Genomics Applied to Nutrition and Health.

Conflict of interest

All authors are independent from funders. Vicky Drapeau has received a grant from The Danone Institute in 2010–2012. On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

394_2015_878_MOESM1_ESM.docx (46 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 45 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Health Canada (2007) Eating well with Canada’s food guide. Available online at: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/food-guide-aliment/index-eng.php. Accessed 11 Mar 2015
  2. 2.
    Pereira MA, Jacobs DR Jr, Van Horn L, Slattery ML, Kartashov AI, Ludwig DS (2002) Dairy consumption, obesity, and the insulin resistance syndrome in young adults: the CARDIA Study. Jama 287:2081–2089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Elwood PC, Pickering JE, Givens DI, Gallacher JE (2010) The consumption of milk and dairy foods and the incidence of vascular disease and diabetes: an overview of the evidence. Lipids 45:925–939. doi: 10.1007/s11745-010-3412-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    van Meijl LE, Vrolix R, Mensink RP (2008) Dairy product consumption and the metabolic syndrome. Nutr Res Rev 21:148–157. doi: 10.1017/S0954422408116997 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J (2006) Metabolic syndrome—a new world-wide definition. A consensus statement from the international diabetes federation. Diabet Med 23:469–480. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2006.01858.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Prentice AM (2014) Dairy products in global public health. Am J Clin Nutr 99:1212S–1216S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.073437 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen M, Pan A, Malik VS, Hu FB (2012) Effects of dairy intake on body weight and fat: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 96:735–747. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.037119 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Abargouei AS, Janghorbani M, Salehi-Marzijarani M, Esmaillzadeh A (2012) Effect of dairy consumption on weight and body composition in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Int J Obes 36:1485–1493. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2011.269 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Marette A, Picard-Deland E (2014) Yogurt consumption and impact on health: focus on children and cardiometabolic risk. Am J Clin Nutr 99:1243S–1247S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.073379 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mozaffarian D, Hao T, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB (2011) Changes in diet and lifestyle and long-term weight gain in women and men. N Engl J Med 364:2392–2404. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1014296 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Astrup A (2014) Yogurt and dairy product consumption to prevent cardiometabolic diseases: epidemiologic and experimental studies. Am J Clin Nutr 99:1235S–1242S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.073015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Darmon N, Vieux F, Maillot M, Volatier JL, Martin A (2009) Nutrient profiles discriminate between foods according to their contribution to nutritionally adequate diets: a validation study using linear programming and the SAIN, LIM system. Am J Clin Nutr 89:1227–1236. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.26465 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Goulet J, Nadeau G, Lapointe A, Lamarche B, Lemieux S (2004) Validity and reproducibility of an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire for healthy French-Canadian men and women. Nutr J 3:13. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-3-13 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Callaway CW, Chumlea WC, Bouchard C, Himes JH, Lohman TG, Martin AD, Mitchell CD, Mueller WH, Roche AF, Seefeldt VD (1988) In: The airlie (VA) consensus conference. Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, IR, USA, pp. 39–80Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Paradis AM, Godin G, Perusse L, Vohl MC (2009) Associations between dietary patterns and obesity phenotypes. Int J Obes 33:1419–1426. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2009.179 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Albers JJ, Warnick GR, Wiebe D, King P, Steiner P, Smith L, Breckenridge C, Chow A, Kuba K, Weidman S, Arnett H, Wood P, Shlagenhaft A (1978) Multi-laboratory comparison of three heparin-Mn2+ precipitation procedures for estimating cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein. Clin Chem 24:853–856Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS (1972) Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 18:499–502Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Laurell CB (1966) Quantitative estimation of proteins by electrophoresis in agarose gel containing antibodies. Anal Biochem 15:45–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Desbuquo B, Aurbach GD (1971) Use of polyethylene glycol to separate free and antibody-bound peptide hormones in radioimmunoassays. J Clin Endocr Metab 33:732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Richterich R, Kuffer H, Lorenz E, Colombo JP (1974) The determination of glucose in plasma and serum (hexokinase-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase method) with the Greiner electronic selective analyzer GSA II (author’s transl). Z fur klin Chem und klin Biochem 12:5–13Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, Naylor BA, Treacher DF, Turner RC (1985) Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 28:412–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pirro M, Bergeron J, Dagenais GR, Bernard PM, Cantin B, Despres JP, Lamarche B (2001) Age and duration of follow-up as modulators of the risk for ischemic heart disease associated with high plasma C-reactive protein levels in men. Arch Intern Med 161:2474–2480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wardle J, Haase AM, Steptoe A, Nillapun M, Jonwutiwes K, Bellisle F (2004) Gender differences in food choice: the contribution of health beliefs and dieting. Ann Behav Med 27:107–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jacques PF, Wang H (2014) Yogurt and weight management. Am J Clin Nutr 99:1229S–1234S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.073031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Paddon-Jones D, Westman E, Mattes RD, Wolfe RR, Astrup A, Westerterp-Plantenga M (2008) Protein, weight management, and satiety. Am J Clin Nutr 87:1558S–1561SGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Weigle DS, Breen PA, Matthys CC, Callahan HS, Meeuws KE, Burden VR, Purnell JQ (2005) A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 82:41–48Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Webb D, Donovan SM, Meydani SN (2014) The role of Yogurt in improving the quality of the American diet and meeting dietary guidelines. Nutr Rev 72:180–189. doi: 10.1111/nure.12098 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kratz M, Baars T, Guyenet S (2013) The relationship between high-fat dairy consumption and obesity, cardiovascular, and metabolic disease. Eur J Nutr 52:1–24. doi: 10.1007/s00394-012-0418-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Holmberg S, Thelin A (2013) High dairy fat intake related to less central obesity: a male cohort study with 12 years’ follow-up. Scand J Prim Health Care 31:89–94. doi: 10.3109/02813432.2012.757070 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lee HJ, Cho JI, Lee HS, Kim CI, Cho E (2014) Intakes of dairy products and calcium and obesity in Korean adults: Korean national health and nutrition examination surveys (KNHANES) 2007–2009. Plos One 9:e99085. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099085 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kim J (2013) Dairy food consumption is inversely associated with the risk of the metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. J Hum Nutr Diet 26(Suppl 1):171–179. doi: 10.1111/jhn.12098 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zemel MB, Shi H, Greer B, Dirienzo D, Zemel PC (2000) Regulation of adiposity by dietary calcium. FASEB J 14:1132–1138Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zemel MB (2002) Regulation of adiposity and obesity risk by dietary calcium: mechanisms and implications. J Am Coll Nutr 21:146S–151SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Westphal S, Kastner S, Taneva E, Leodolter A, Dierkes J, Luley C (2004) Postprandial lipid and carbohydrate responses after the ingestion of a casein-enriched mixed meal. Am J Clin Nutr 80:284–290Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zemel MB (2005) The role of dairy foods in weight management. J Am Coll Nutr 24:537S–546SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Layman DK, Walker DA (2006) Potential importance of leucine in treatment of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. J Nutr 136:319S–323SGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Scarborough P, Rayner M, Stockley L, Black A (2007) Nutrition professionals’ perception of the ‘healthiness’ of individual foods. Public Health Nutr 10:346–353. doi: 10.1017/S1368980007666683 Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Quinio C, Biltoft-Jensen A, De Henauw S, Gibney MJ, Huybrechts I, McCarthy SN, O’Neill JL, Tetens I, Turrini A, Volatier JL (2007) Comparison of different nutrient profiling schemes to a new reference method using dietary surveys. Eur J Nutr 46(Suppl 2):37–46. doi: 10.1007/s00394-007-2005-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wang H, Livingston KA, Fox CS, Meigs JB, Jacques PF (2013) Yogurt consumption is associated with better diet quality and metabolic profile in American men and women. Nutr Res 33:18–26. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2012.11.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Prospective Studies C, Whitlock G, Lewington S, Sherliker P, Clarke R, Emberson J, Halsey J, Qizilbash N, Collins R, Peto R (2009) Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900,000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies. Lancet 373:1083–1096. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60318-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lamon-Fava S, Wilson PW, Schaefer EJ (1996) Impact of body mass index on coronary heart disease risk factors in men and women. The framingham offspring study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 16:1509–1515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sherzai A, Heim LT, Boothby C, Sherzai AD (2012) Stroke, food groups, and dietary patterns: a systematic review. Nutr Rev 70:423–435. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2012.00490.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fung TT, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Rexrode KM, Willett WC, Hu FB (2004) Prospective study of major dietary patterns and stroke risk in women. Stroke 35:2014–2019. doi: 10.1161/01.STR.0000135762.89154.92 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fung TT, Rimm EB, Spiegelman D, Rifai N, Tofler GH, Willett WC, Hu FB (2001) Association between dietary patterns and plasma biomarkers of obesity and cardiovascular disease risk. Am J Clin Nutr 73:61–67Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ricci-Cabello I, Herrera MO, Artacho R (2012) Possible role of milk-derived bioactive peptides in the treatment and prevention of metabolic syndrome. Nutr Rev 70:241–255. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00448.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bouchard-Mercier A, Paradis A-M, Rudkowska I, Lemieux S, Couture P, Vohl M-C (2013) Associations between dietary patterns and gene expression profiles of healthy men and women: a cross-sectional study. Nutr J 12:24CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hubert Cormier
    • 1
    • 2
  • Élisabeth Thifault
    • 1
  • Véronique Garneau
    • 1
  • Angelo Tremblay
    • 3
  • Vicky Drapeau
    • 4
  • Louis Pérusse
    • 1
    • 3
  • Marie-Claude Vohl
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF)Laval UniversityQuebec CityCanada
  2. 2.School of NutritionLaval UniversityQuebec CityCanada
  3. 3.Department of KinesiologyLaval UniversityQuebec CityCanada
  4. 4.Department of Physical EducationLaval UniversityQuebec CityCanada

Personalised recommendations