Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial
- 705 Downloads
Controversy exists regarding whether increasing dairy intake without energy restriction would lead to weight loss. We aimed to compare the potential weight-reducing effects of kefir drink (a probiotic dairy product) and milk in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women.
One hundred and forty-four subjects were assessed for eligibility in this single-center, multi-arm, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. Of these, seventy-five eligible women aged 25–45 years were randomly assigned to three groups, labeled as control, milk, and kefir, to receive an outpatient dietary regimen for 8 weeks. Subjects in the control group received a diet providing a maintenance level of energy intake, containing 2 servings/day of low-fat dairy products, while those in the milk and kefir groups received a weight maintenance diet, containing 2 additional servings/day (a total of 4 servings/day) of dairy products from low-fat milk or commercial kefir drink, respectively. Anthropometric outcomes including weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were measured every 2 weeks.
Fifty-eight subjects completed the study. Using analysis of covariance models in the intention-to-treat population (n = 75), we found that at 8 weeks, subjects in the kefir and milk groups had significantly greater reductions in weight, BMI, and WC compared to those in the control group (all p < 0.01). However, no such significant differences were found between the kefir and milk groups.
Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. However, further studies are warranted.
KeywordsDairy products Diet Weight loss Women Randomized controlled trial
The present article was extracted from the M.Sc. thesis written by Yasamin Fathi and was financially supported by Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Authors would like to thank the participants for their kind and enthusiastic cooperation. We are grateful to the staff of Cardiovascular Research Center in Shiraz, Iran, for their support and collaboration.
Conflict of interest
M.J.Z. is the president of Cardiovascular Research Center in Shiraz, Iran. Y.F., S.F., and S.H.R.T. declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.Kopelman PG (2000) Obesity as a medical problem. Nature 404:635–643Google Scholar
- 6.Bjorntorp P (1988) The associations between obesity, adipose tissue distribution and disease. Acta Med Scand Suppl 723:121–134Google Scholar
- 8.Zemel MB (2004) Role of calcium and dairy products in energy partitioning and weight management. Am J Clin Nutr 79:907S–912SGoogle Scholar
- 10.Zemel MB, Shi H, Greer B, Dirienzo D, Zemel PC (2000) Regulation of adiposity by dietary calcium. FASEB J 14:1132–1138Google Scholar
- 14.Gunther CW, Legowski PA, Lyle RM, McCabe GP, Eagan MS, Peacock M, Teegarden D (2005) Dairy products do not lead to alterations in body weight or fat mass in young women in a 1-y intervention. Am J Clin Nutr 81:751–756Google Scholar
- 15.Gunther CW, Lyle RM, Legowski PA, James JM, McCabe LD, McCabe GP, Peacock M, Teegarden D (2005) Fat oxidation and its relation to serum parathyroid hormone in young women enrolled in a 1-y dairy calcium intervention. Am J Clin Nutr 82:1228–1234Google Scholar
- 22.Wennersberg MH, Smedman A, Turpeinen AM, Retterstol K, Tengblad S, Lipre E, Aro A, Mutanen P, Seljeflot I, Basu S, Pedersen JI, Mutanen M, Vessby B (2009) Dairy products and metabolic effects in overweight men and women: results from a 6-mo intervention study. Am J Clin Nutr 90:960–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 25.Zemel B, Nocton AM, Richards J, Milstead A, Gebhardt L, Campbell PJ (2002) Increasing dairy calcium intake reduces adiposity in obese African American adults (abstract). Circulation 106(suppl 2):610Google Scholar
- 36.Beller EM, Gebski V, Keech AC (2002) Randomisation in clinical trials. Med J Aust 177:565–567Google Scholar
- 37.Physical Activity Policy, Health Improvement Directorate (2009) The general practice physical activity questionnaire (GPPAQ): a screening tool to assess adult physical activity levels, within primary care. Department of Health, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 38.Mahan LK, Escott-Stump S, Raymond JL (2012) Krause’s food and the nutrition care process. Elsevier Saunders, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
- 52.Livingstone MB (1995) Assessment of food intakes: are we measuring what people eat? Br J Biomed Sci 52:58–67Google Scholar