European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 55, Issue 1, pp 75–81 | Cite as

Impact of resistant starch in three plantain (Musa AAB) products on glycaemic response of healthy volunteers

  • Ebun-Oluwa Oladele
  • Gary WilliamsonEmail author
Original Contribution


Background and aim of the study

Plantains can be eaten in various forms providing a good opportunity to study the effect of starch type on glycaemic response, and so three products differing in their types of available carbohydrate and contents of resistant starch were tested.


Boiled unripe plantain (BUP), boiled unripe plantain crisps (BUPC), ripe raw plantain (RRP) and white bread as reference (all 25 g available carbohydrate portion) were given to ten pre-screened healthy individuals. Postprandial glycaemic responses and glycaemic indices (GI) were measured.


Peak blood glucose for BUP, BUPC and RRP was at 45, 45 and 30 min post-meal time, respectively. The peak blood glucose concentrations for BUP, BUPC and RRP (1.8 ± 0.8, 2.3 ± 0.8, 1.9 ± 0.7 mmol/L, n = 10, respectively) reflected the in vitro quantities/types of rapidly available glucose (RAG) in the samples. On the other hand, mean GI ± SEM values obtained for the test products (BUP = 44.9 ± 3.6, BUPC = 55.0 ± 4.2, RRP = 38 ± 4.4, n = 10) were neither significantly different nor directly correlated with RAG.


The results show a potential link between RAG and GI, but the correlation is confounded by the presence of other constituents in the plantains.


Plantain Glycaemic index Glycaemic response Resistant starch Available carbohydrates 



Boiled unripe plantain


Boiled unripe plantain crisps


Ripe raw plantain


Glycaemic index


Rapidly available glucose



The authors are grateful to the Commonwealth Scholarship Commission in the UK for providing the funding for Ebun-Oluwa Oladele’s Ph.D. degree at the University of Leeds, UK.


  1. 1.
    Livesey G, Taylor R, Hulshof T, Howlett J (2008) Glycemic response and health—a systematic review and meta-analysis: relations between dietary glycemic properties and health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr 87(1):258s–268sGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dona AC, Pages G, Gilbert RG, Kuchel PW (2010) Digestion of starch: in vivo and in vitro kinetic models used to characterise oligosaccharide or glucose release. Carbohydr Polym 80(3):599–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Monro JA (2002) Glycaemic glucose equivalent: combining carbohydrate content, quantity and glycaemic index of foods for precision in glycaemia management. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 11(3):217–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wolever TMS (2006) Glycaemic index: A physiological classification of dietary carbohydrate. CABI publishing, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Monro JA (1999) Available carbohydrate and glycemic index combined in new data sets for managing glycemia and diabetes. J Food Compos Anal 12(1):71–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brand-Miller JC, Stockmann K, Atkinson F, Petocz P, Denyer G (2009) Glycemic index, postprandial glycemia, and the shape of the curve in healthy subjects: analysis of a database of more than 1000 foods. Am J Clin Nutr 89(1):97–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Monro J (2003) Redefining the glycemic index for dietary management of postprandial glycemia. J Nutr 133(12):4256–4258Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Englyst HN, Veenstra J, Hudson GJ (1996) Measurement of rapidly available glucose (RAG) in plant foods: a potential in vitro predictor of the glycaemic response. Br J Nutr 75(3):327–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Inger B (2006) Starch. In: Eliasson A (ed) Carbohydrates in food, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 471–521Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Juansang J, Puttanlek C, Rungsardthong V, Puncha-arnon S, Uttapap D (2012) Effect of gelatinisation on slowly digestible starch and resistant starch of heat-moisture treated and chemically modified canna starches. Food Chem 131(2):500–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lehmann U, Robin F (2007) Slowly digestible starch-its structure and health implications: a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 18(7):346–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ovando-Martinez M, Sayago-Ayerdi S, Agama-Acevedo E, Goni I, Bello-Perez LA (2009) Unripe banana flour as an ingredient to increase the undigestible carbohydrates of pasta. Food Chem 113(1):121–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pelissari FM, Andrade-Mahecha MM, Sobral PJD, Menegalli FC (2012) Isolation and characterization of the flour and starch of plantain bananas (Musa paradisiaca). Starch Starke 64(5):382–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bahado-Singh PS, Wheatley AO, Ahmad MH, Morrison E, Asemota HN (2006) Food processing methods influence the glycaemic indices of some commonly eaten West Indian carbohydrate-rich foods. Br J Nutr 96(3):476–481Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Menezes EW, Dan MCT, Cardenette GHL, Goni I, Bello-Perez L, Lajolo FM (2010) In vitro colonic fermentation and glycemic response of different kinds of unripe banana flour. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 65(4):379–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Aurore G, Parfait B, Fahrasmane L (2009) Bananas, raw materials for making processed food products. Trends Food Sci Technol 20(2):78–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brouns F, Bjorck I, Frayn KN, Gibbs AL, Lang V, Slama G, Wolever TMS (2005) Glycaemic index methodology. Nutr Res Rev 18(1):145–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Englyst KN, Englyst HN (2005) Carbohydrate bioavailability. Br J Nutr 94(1):1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Goni I, Valentin-Gamazo C (2003) Chickpea flour ingredient slows glycemic response to pasta in healthy volunteers. Food Chem 81(4):511–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nilsson AC, Ostman EM, Granfeldt Y, Bjorck IME (2008) Effect of cereal test breakfasts differing in glycemic index and content of indigestible carbohydrates on daylong glucose tolerance in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 87(3):645–654Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Leeman M, Ostman E, Bjorck I (2008) Glycaemic and satiating properties of potato products. Eur J Clin Nutr 62(1):87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Jenkins AL, Josse RG (1991) The glycemic index—methodology and clinical implications. Am J Clin Nutr 54(5):846–854Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hasjim J, Lee SO, Hendrich S, Setiawan S, Ai YF, Jane JL (2010) Characterization of a novel resistant-starch and its effects on postprandial plasma-glucose and insulin responses. Cereal Chem 87(4):257–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Englyst KN, Vinoy S, Englyst HN, Lang V (2003) Glycaemic index of cereal products explained by their content of rapidly and slowly available glucose. Br J Nutr 89(3):329–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jenkins DJA, Kendall CWC (2000) Resistant starches. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 16(2):178–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Foster-Powell K, Holt SHA, Brand-Miller JC (2002) International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. Am J Clin Nutr 76(1):5–56Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    David CS, Gregory C (2001) Dietary fiber and glucose metabolism and diabetes. In: Dreher ML, Cho SS (eds) Handbook of dietary fiber, chapter 7. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Williamson G (2013) Possible effects of dietary polyphenols on sugar absorption and digestion. Mol Nutr Food Res 57(1):48–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bennett RN, Shiga TM, Hassimotto NMA, Rosa EAS, Lajolo FM, Cordenunsi BR (2010) Phenolics and antioxidant properties of fruit pulp and cell wall fractions of postharvest banana (Musa acuminata Juss.) cultivars. J Agr Food Chem 58(13):7991–8003CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemistry DepartmentFederal University of TechnologyAkureNigeria
  2. 2.School of Food Science and NutritionUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK

Personalised recommendations