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Hypolipidemic effect of dietary water-soluble protein extract from chicken: impact on genes regulating hepatic lipid and bile acid metabolism

Abstract

Background

Amount and type of dietary protein have been shown to influence blood lipids. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of a water-soluble fraction of chicken protein (CP) on plasma and hepatic lipid metabolism in normolipidemic rats.

Methods

Male Wistar rats were fed either a control diet with 20 % w/w casein as the protein source, or an experimental diet where casein was replaced with CP at 6, 14, or 20 % w/w for 4 weeks.

Results

Rats fed CP had markedly reduced levels of triacylglycerols (TAG) and cholesterol in both plasma and liver, accompanied by stimulated hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 activity in the 20 % CP group compared to the control group. In addition, reduced activities and gene expression of hepatic enzymes involved in lipogenesis were observed. The gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 was reduced in the 20 % CP-fed rats, whereas gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha was increased. Moreover, 6, 14, and 20 % CP-fed rats had significantly increased free carnitine and acylcarnitine plasma levels compared to control rats. The plasma methionine/glycine and lysine/arginine ratios were reduced in 20 % CP-treated rats. The mRNA level of ATP-binding cassette 4 was increased in the 20 % CP group, accompanied by the increased level of plasma bile acids.

Conclusions

The present data suggest that the hypotriglyceridemic property of a water-soluble fraction of CP is primarily due to effects on TAG synthesis and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. The cholesterol-lowering effect by CP may be linked to increased bile acid formation.

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Abbreviations

ABC:

ATP-binding cassette

Acaca/ACC:

Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase alpha

ACE:

Angiotensin-converting enzyme

AST:

Alanine aminotransferase

ALT:

Aspartate aminotransferase

CP:

Chicken protein

CPT:

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase

CV:

Coefficient of variation

Fasn/FAS:

Fatty acid synthase

GPAT:

Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase

HDL:

High-density lipoprotein

HMG-CoA reductase:

3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase

HMG-CoA synthase:

3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase

LDL:

Low-density lipoprotein

MUFA:

Monounsaturated fatty acid

NAFLD:

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

NEFA:

Nonesterified fatty acid

PC:

Phospholipid phosphatidylcholine

PL:

Phospholipid

PPARα:

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

PUFA:

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

SFA:

Saturated fatty acid

Srebf/SREBP:

Sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor

TAG:

Triacylglycerol

T2DM:

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

VLDL:

Very-low-density lipoprotein

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Acknowledgments

We thank Kari Williams, Liv Kristine Øysæd, Randi Sandvik, Kari Helland Mortensen, Svein Krüger and Torunn Eide for technical assistance, and Eline Milde and the staff at the Laboratory Animal Facility, University of Bergen, for care of the animals. This project has been founded by the University of Bergen through the Clinical Nutrition Program and the company Norilia AS.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Correspondence to Rita Vik.

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Vik, R., Bjørndal, B., Bohov, P. et al. Hypolipidemic effect of dietary water-soluble protein extract from chicken: impact on genes regulating hepatic lipid and bile acid metabolism. Eur J Nutr 54, 193–204 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-014-0700-5

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-014-0700-5

Keywords

  • Chicken protein
  • Lipogenesis
  • β-Oxidation