Caffeine intake and risk of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin in an 11-year prospective study
- 555 Downloads
Caffeine may repair skin damage induced by excessive exposure to ultraviolet light. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between caffeine intake and incidence of basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We also assessed the associations between coffee consumption and incidence of these skin cancers.
Caffeine intake and consumption of coffee were estimated from food frequency questionnaires assessed in 1992, 1994, and 1996 among 1,325 randomly selected adult residents of a subtropical Australian community. All histologically confirmed tumours of BCC and SCC occurring between 1997 and 2007 were recorded. Associations with BCC and SCC were assessed using Poisson and negative binomial regression models and were adjusted for confounders including skin type and indicators of past sun exposure.
There was no association between total caffeine intake and incidence of BCC or SCC. Participants with prior skin cancers, however, had a 25 % lower risk of BCC if they were in the highest tertile of total caffeine intake (equivalent to daily consumption of four cups of regular coffee) compared with the lowest tertile (multivariable RR 0.75; 95 % CI 0.57–0.97, P trend = 0.025). There was no dose–response relationship with SCC. Consumption of neither caffeinated nor decaffeinated coffee was associated with BCC or SCC.
Among people with prior skin cancers, a relatively high caffeine intake may help prevent subsequent BCC development. However, caffeine intake appears not to influence the risk of SCC.
KeywordsBasal cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Non-melanoma skin cancer Caffeine Coffee Prospective study
This study was supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC) (data collection and analysis) with a contribution from L’Oreal Recherche (part of data collection). ACG was partly supported by a fellowship from the Medical Research Council, UK (No. 89912).
Conflict of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
- 1.Australian Institute of Health and Welfare & Cancer Australia (2008). Non-melanoma skin cancer: general practice consultations, hospitalisation and mortality. Cancer series no. 43. Cat. no. 39. Canberra: AIHWGoogle Scholar
- 3.Huang MT, Xie JG, Wang ZY, Ho CT, Lou YR, Wang CX, Hard GC, Conney AH (1997) Effects of tea, decaffeinated tea, and caffeine on UVB light-induced complete carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice: demonstration of caffeine as a biologically important constituent of tea. Cancer Res 57:2623–2629Google Scholar
- 7.Jacobsen BK, Bjelke E, Kvåle G, Heuch I (1986) Coffee drinking, mortality, and cancer incidence: results from a Norwegian prospective study. J Natl Cancer Inst 76:823–831Google Scholar
- 11.Green A, Battistutta D, Hart V, Leslie D, Marks G, Williams G, Gaffney P, Parsons P, Hirst L, Frost C, Orrell E, Durham K, Lang C (1994) The Nambour skin cancer and actinic eye disease prevention trial: design and baseline characteristics of participants. Control Clin Trials 15:512–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.Green A, Williams G, Neale R, Hart V, Leslie D, Parsons P, Marks GC, Gaffney P, Battistutta D, Frost C, Lang C, Russell A (1999) Daily sunscreen application and betacarotene supplementation in prevention of basal-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas of the skin: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 354:723–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.Food Standards Australia New Zealand (2006) NUTTAB 2006 Australian Food Composition Tables. Food Standards Australia New Zealand, CanberraGoogle Scholar
- 17.Marks GC, Hughes MC, van der Pols JC (2006) Relative validity of food intake estimates using a food frequency questionnaire is associated with sex, age, and other personal characteristics. J Nutr 136:459–465Google Scholar
- 18.Ashton BA, Marks GC, Battistutta D, Green A (1996) Under-reporting of energy intake in two methods of dietary assessment in the Nambour Trial. Aust J Nutr Diet 53:53–60Google Scholar
- 21.Rothman K, Greenland S, Lash T (2008) Modern epidemiology, 3rd edn. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 23.SAS Institute Inc. (2008) SAS/STAT® 9.2 user’s guide. SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NCGoogle Scholar
- 27.Ibiebele TI, van der Pols JC, Hughes MC, Marks GC, Williams GM, Green AC (2007) Dietary pattern in association with squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: a prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr 85:1401–1408Google Scholar
- 34.World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research (2007) Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. American Institute of Cancer Research, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- 35.Food Standards Australia New Zealand (2011) The 23rd Australian total diet study. Food Standards Australia New Zealand, Canberra, ACTGoogle Scholar