To evaluate the effects of two dietary patterns in which carbohydrates and proteins were eaten mostly at lunch or dinner on body weight and composition, energy metabolism, and biochemical markers in overweight/obese men.
Fifty-eight men (30.0 ± 7.4 years; 30.8 ± 2.4 kg/m2) followed a covert hypocaloric balanced diet (−10 % of daily energy requirements) during 8 weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: control diet (CT); diurnal carbohydrate/nocturnal protein (DCNP); and nocturnal carbohydrate/diurnal protein (NCDP). Main analyzed outcomes were weight loss, body composition, diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), and glucose/lipid profile.
In all groups, a significant decrease in body weight, BMI, and fat mass (kg and %) was verified, without differences between groups. Interestingly, within group analyses showed that the fat-free mass (kg) significantly decreased in NCDP and in CT after 8-week intervention, but not in DCNP. A detrimental increase in fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) was verified only in DCNP, while NCDP and CT groups presented a non-significant reduction. Moreover, significant differences between DCNP and the other groups were detected for fasting insulin and HOMAIR. After the adjustments, NCDP presented a significantly higher DIT and energy expenditure after lunch, compared with DCNP, but after dinner, there were no differences among groups.
Eating carbohydrates mostly at dinner and protein mostly at lunch within a hypocaloric balanced diet had similar effect on body composition and biochemical markers, but higher effect on DIT compared with control diet. Moreover, eating carbohydrates mostly at lunch and protein mostly at dinner had a deleterious impact on glucose homeostasis.
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We wish to thank Carolina P. Zuconi, Navarra’s dietitians, all technical staff and individuals who volunteered for this study. This work was supported by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq/MCT/Brazil), CIBERon and RETICS (Spain) as well as a LE/97 from University of Navarra (Spain). The CAPES Foundation (CAPES/MEC/Brazil) provided research grants to R.D.M. Alves and to F.C.E. Oliveira. Finally, The Capes Foundation (Brazil, CAPES/MECD-DGU 218/10) as well as to Ministry of Education of Spain (Spain, HB-2009-0050-PC) funded the Interuniversity Cooperation between the Federal University of Viçosa and the University of Navarra.
Conflict of interest
The authors declared no conflict of interest.
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Alves, R.D.M., de Oliveira, F.C.E., Hermsdorff, H.H.M. et al. Eating carbohydrate mostly at lunch and protein mostly at dinner within a covert hypocaloric diet influences morning glucose homeostasis in overweight/obese men. Eur J Nutr 53, 49–60 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-013-0497-7
- Weight management
- Body composition
- Energy metabolism
- Glucose homeostasis