European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 53, Issue 1, pp 49–60 | Cite as

Eating carbohydrate mostly at lunch and protein mostly at dinner within a covert hypocaloric diet influences morning glucose homeostasis in overweight/obese men

  • Raquel Duarte Moreira Alves
  • Fernanda Cristina Esteves de Oliveira
  • Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff
  • Itziar Abete
  • María Ángeles Zulet
  • José Alfredo Martínez
  • Josefina Bressan
Original Contribution

Abstract

Purpose

To evaluate the effects of two dietary patterns in which carbohydrates and proteins were eaten mostly at lunch or dinner on body weight and composition, energy metabolism, and biochemical markers in overweight/obese men.

Methods

Fifty-eight men (30.0 ± 7.4 years; 30.8 ± 2.4 kg/m2) followed a covert hypocaloric balanced diet (−10 % of daily energy requirements) during 8 weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: control diet (CT); diurnal carbohydrate/nocturnal protein (DCNP); and nocturnal carbohydrate/diurnal protein (NCDP). Main analyzed outcomes were weight loss, body composition, diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), and glucose/lipid profile.

Results

In all groups, a significant decrease in body weight, BMI, and fat mass (kg and %) was verified, without differences between groups. Interestingly, within group analyses showed that the fat-free mass (kg) significantly decreased in NCDP and in CT after 8-week intervention, but not in DCNP. A detrimental increase in fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) was verified only in DCNP, while NCDP and CT groups presented a non-significant reduction. Moreover, significant differences between DCNP and the other groups were detected for fasting insulin and HOMAIR. After the adjustments, NCDP presented a significantly higher DIT and energy expenditure after lunch, compared with DCNP, but after dinner, there were no differences among groups.

Conclusion

Eating carbohydrates mostly at dinner and protein mostly at lunch within a hypocaloric balanced diet had similar effect on body composition and biochemical markers, but higher effect on DIT compared with control diet. Moreover, eating carbohydrates mostly at lunch and protein mostly at dinner had a deleterious impact on glucose homeostasis.

Keywords

Obesity Weight management Body composition Macronutrients Energy metabolism Glucose homeostasis 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raquel Duarte Moreira Alves
    • 1
  • Fernanda Cristina Esteves de Oliveira
    • 2
  • Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff
    • 1
  • Itziar Abete
    • 3
  • María Ángeles Zulet
    • 3
    • 4
  • José Alfredo Martínez
    • 3
    • 4
  • Josefina Bressan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Nutrition and HealthFederal University of ViçosaViçosaBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Food Science and TechnologyFederal University of ViçosaViçosaBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Nutrition, Food Science, Physiology and ToxicologyUniversity of NavarraPamplonaSpain
  4. 4.CIBERobn : Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y la Nutricion; Instituto Carlos IIIMadridSpain

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