Combined medium-chain triglyceride and chilli feeding increases diet-induced thermogenesis in normal-weight humans
- 1.7k Downloads
Background and purpose
Capsaicin, the active ingredient of chilli, and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) have been shown to increase diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), improve satiety and decrease energy intake. Combinations of thermogenic ingredients have previously been investigated such as mustard and chilli, or capsaicin and green tea with positive effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of chilli and MCT feeding on DIT and satiety in healthy volunteers.
Seven healthy volunteers were tested on four occasions following an overnight fast. Volunteers were fed a breakfast containing chilli and MCT oil, chilli and sunflower oil, bell pepper and sunflower oil or bell pepper and MCT oil. Satiety and gastrointestinal comfort were measured using visual analogue scales (VAS) and category scales. Baseline energy expenditure, and DIT and fat oxidation were measured for 6 h using indirect calorimetry.
There were significant differences in DIT between the meals (P = 0.003) which increased from 7.0 % for pepper–sunflower oil to 10.7 % for chilli–MCT oil. The predominant differences existed between the chilli–MCT oil and chilli–sunflower oil (P = 0.013), between chilli–MCT oil and pepper–sunflower oil (P = 0.007) and between pepper–sunflower oil and pepper–MCT oil (P = 0.004). There was a significant difference in fat oxidation between the pepper–sunflower oil and pepper–MCT oil (P = 0.032). There were no differences in any VAS satiety parameters or gastrointestinal comfort ratings.
Adding chilli and MCT to meals increases DIT by over 50 % which over time may cumulate to help induce weight loss and prevent weight gain or regain.
KeywordsChilli Energy expenditure Medium-chain triglyceride Satiety Diet-induced thermogenesis
Funding for the study was provided by Oxford Brookes University. There were no conflicts of interest associated with any of the authors.
- 3.Ahuja KD, Robertson IK, Geraghty DP, Ball MJ (2006) Effects of chili consumption on postprandial glucose, insulin, and energy metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 84:63–69Google Scholar
- 5.Bach AC, Babayan VK (1982) Medium-chain triglycerides: an update. Am J Clin Nutr 36:950–962Google Scholar
- 7.Bloom B, Chaikoff IL, Reinhardt WO (1951) Intestinal lymph as pathway for transport of absorbed fatty acids of different chain lengths. Am J Physiol 166:451–455Google Scholar
- 8.Blundell JE, Cooling J (2000) Routes to obesity: phenotypes, food choices and activity. Br J Nutr 83(Suppl 1):S33–S38Google Scholar
- 12.Dulloo AG, Fathi M, Mensi N, Girardier L (1996) Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure and urinary catecholamines of humans consuming low-to-moderate amounts of medium-chain triglycerides: a dose-response study in a human respiratory chamber. Eur J Clin Nutr 50:152–158Google Scholar
- 14.Galgani JE, Ravussin E (2010) Effect of dihydrocapsiate on resting metabolic rate in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 92:1089–1093Google Scholar
- 15.Goedecke JH, Clark VR, Noakes TD, Lambert EV (2005) The effects of medium-chain triacylglycerol and carbohydrate ingestion on ultra-endurance exercise performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 15:15–27Google Scholar
- 16.Henry CJ, Emery B (1986) Effect of spiced food on metabolic rate. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 40:165–168Google Scholar
- 17.Jeukendrup AE, Thielen JJ, Wagenmakers AJ, Brouns F, Saris WH (1998) Effect of medium-chain triacylglycerol and carbohydrate ingestion during exercise on substrate utilization and subsequent cycling performance. Am J Clin Nutr 67:397–404Google Scholar
- 19.Kawada T, Watanabe T, Takaishi T, Tanaka T, Iwai K (1986) Capsaicin-induced beta-adrenergic action on energy metabolism in rats: influence of capsaicin on oxygen consumption, the respiratory quotient, and substrate utilization. In: Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol 183. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, New York, NY, pp 250–256Google Scholar
- 22.Lusk G (1928) The elements of the science of nutrition. WB Saunders Co, Philadeiphia, PAGoogle Scholar
- 24.National Centre for Social Research and University College London. Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (2009) Health Survey for England. In: Colchester, Essex: UK data archive [distributor]Google Scholar
- 25.Reed GW, Hill JO (1996) Measuring the thermic effect of food. Am J Clin Nutr 63:164–169Google Scholar
- 27.Scalfi L, Coltorti A, Contaldo F (1991) Postprandial thermogenesis in lean and obese subjects after meals supplemented with medium-chain and long-chain triglycerides. Am J Clin Nutr 53:1130–1133Google Scholar
- 28.Schutz Y, Bessard T, Jequier E (1984) Diet-induced thermogenesis measured over a whole day in obese and nonobese women. Am J Clin Nutr 40:542–552Google Scholar
- 29.Secor SM (2009) Specific dynamic action: a review of the postprandial metabolic response. J Comp Physiol 179:1–56Google Scholar
- 33.Stubbs RJ, Harbron CG (1996) Covert manipulation of the ratio of medium- to long-chain triglycerides in isoenergetically dense diets: effect on food intake in ad libitum feeding men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 20:435–444Google Scholar
- 34.Stubbs RJ, Hughes DA, Johnstone AM, Rowley E, Reid C, Elia M, Stratton R, Delargy H, King N, Blundell JE (2000) The use of visual analogue scales to assess motivation to eat in human subjects: a review of their reliability and validity with an evaluation of new hand-held computerized systems for temporal tracking of appetite ratings. Br J Nutr 84:405–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 38.WHO (2000) Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. World Health Organization technical report series 894:i–xii, pp 1–253Google Scholar
- 39.Williamson JR, Browning ET, Scholz R, Kreisberg RA, Fritz IB (1968) Inhibition of fatty acid stimulation of gluconeogenesis by (+)-decanoylcarnitine in perfused rat liver. Diabetes 17:194–208Google Scholar
- 42.Yoshioka M, St-Pierre S, Drapeau V, Dionne I, Doucet E, Suzuki M, Tremblay A (1999) Effects of red pepper on appetite and energy intake. Br J Nutr 82:115–123Google Scholar
- 43.Yoshioka M, St-Pierre S, Suzuki M, Tremblay A (1998) Effects of red pepper added to high-fat and high-carbohydrate meals on energy metabolism and substrate utilization in Japanese women. Br J Nutr 80:503–510Google Scholar