Krill oil versus fish oil in modulation of inflammation and lipid metabolism in mice transgenic for TNF-α
- 1.5k Downloads
Biological effects of marine oils, fish oil (FO) and krill oil (KO), are mostly attributed to the high content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The study was aimed to investigate the influence of FO and KO on lipid homeostasis and inflammation in an animal model of persistent low-grade exposure to human tumor necrosis factor α (hTNF-α) and to evaluate whether these effects depend on the structural forms of EPA and DHA [triacylglycerols (TAG) vs. phospholipids].
Male C57BL/6 hTNF-α mice were fed for 6 weeks a high-fat control diet (24.50 % total fats, w/w) or high-fat diets containing either FO or KO at similar doses of n-3 PUFAs (EPA: 5.23 vs. 5.39 wt%, DHA: 2.82 vs. 2.36 wt% of total fatty acids).
We found that KO, containing bioactive n-3 PUFAs in the form of phospholipids, was capable of modulating lipid metabolism by lowering plasma levels of TAG and cholesterol and stimulating the mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation, as well as improving the overall carnitine turnover. Though the administration of FO was not as effective as KO in the lowering of plasma TAG, FO significantly improved the levels of all cholesterol classes in plasma. Except from the increase in the levels of IL-17 in FO-fed mice and a trend to decrease in MCP-1 levels in KO-fed animals, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were not substantially different between treatment groups.
Our findings demonstrate that FO and KO are comparable dietary sources of n-3 PUFAs. However, when quantitatively similar doses of n-3 PUFAs are administered, KO seems to have a greater potential to promote lipid catabolism. The effect of dietary oils on the levels of inflammatory markers in hTNF-α transgenic mice fed a high-fat diet needs further investigations.
KeywordsFish oil Krill oil n-3 PUFA Inflammation Lipids High-fat diet
Acyl-CoA oxidase 1
Free fatty acids
Glycerol phosphate acyltransferase
High-performance liquid chromatography
Monounsaturated fatty acid
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
Polyunsaturated fatty acid
Saturated fatty acid
Tumor necrosis factor α
Very low-density lipoprotein
We thank Liv Kristine Øysæd, Kari Williams, Randi Sandvik, Torunn Eide and Svein Krüger for excellent technical assistance. This work was supported by grants from Nordforsk, grant 070010, MitoHealth and the Research Council of Norway, grant 190287/110.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 3.Deutsch L (2007) Evaluation of the effect of Neptune Krill Oil on chronic inflammation and arthritic symptoms. J Am Coll Nutr 26(1):39–48Google Scholar
- 4.Bunea R, El Farrah K, Deutsch L (2004) Evaluation of the effects of Neptune Krill Oil on the clinical course of hyperlipidemia. Altern Med Rev 9(4):420–428Google Scholar
- 5.Deckelbaum RJ, Worgall TS, Seo T (2006) n-3 fatty acids and gene expression. Am J Clin Nutr 83(6 Suppl):1520S–1525SGoogle Scholar
- 9.Weisberg SP, McCann D, Desai M, Rosenbaum M, Leibel RL, Ferrante AW Jr (2003) Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. J Clin Invest 112(12):1796–1808Google Scholar
- 19.Glosli H, Gudbrandsen OA, Mullen AJ, Halvorsen B, Rost TH, Wergedahl H, Prydz H, Aukrust P, Berge RK (2005) Down-regulated expression of PPARalpha target genes, reduced fatty acid oxidation and altered fatty acid composition in the liver of mice transgenic for hTNFalpha. Biochim Biophys Acta 1734(3):235–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Madsen L, Garras A, Asins G, Serra D, Hegardt FG, Berge RK (1999) Mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase II as potential control sites for ketogenesis during mitochondrion and peroxisome proliferation. Biochem Pharmacol 57(9):1011–1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.Madsen L, Froyland L, Dyroy E, Helland K, Berge RK (1998) Docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids are differently metabolized in rat liver during mitochondria and peroxisome proliferation. J Lipid Res 39(3):583–593Google Scholar
- 23.Skorve J, al-Shurbaji A, Asiedu D, Bjorkhem I, Berglund L, Berge RK (1993) On the mechanism of the hypolipidemic effect of sulfur-substituted hexadecanedioic acid (3-thiadicarboxylic acid) in normolipidemic rats. J Lipid Res 34(7):1177–1185Google Scholar
- 26.Grimstad T, Bjorndal B, Cacabelos D, Aasprong OG, Janssen EA, Omdal R, Svardal A, Hausken T, Bohov P, Portero-Otin M, Pamplona R, Berge RK (2012) Dietary supplementation of krill oil attenuates inflammation and oxidative stress in experimental ulcerative colitis in rats. Scand J Gastroenterol 47(1):49–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 30.Batetta B, Griinari M, Carta G, Murru E, Ligresti A, Cordeddu L, Giordano E, Sanna F, Bisogno T, Uda S, Collu M, Bruheim I, Di Marzo V, Banni S (2009) Endocannabinoids may mediate the ability of (n-3) fatty acids to reduce ectopic fat and inflammatory mediators in obese Zucker rats. J Nutr 139(8):1495–1501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 31.Meydani SN, Endres S, Woods MM, Goldin BR, Soo C, Morrill-Labrode A, Dinarello CA, Gorbach SL (1991) Oral (n-3) fatty acid supplementation suppresses cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation: comparison between young and older women. J Nutr 121(4):547–555Google Scholar
- 36.Koenders MI, Lubberts E, van de Loo FA, Oppers-Walgreen B, van den Bersselaar L, Helsen MM, Kolls JK, Di Padova FE, Joosten LA, van den Berg WB (2006) Interleukin-17 acts independently of TNF-alpha under arthritic conditions. J Immunol 176(10):6262–6269Google Scholar
- 41.Harris WS (1997) n-3 fatty acids and serum lipoproteins: human studies. Am J Clin Nutr 65(5 Suppl):1645S–1654SGoogle Scholar
- 43.Vigerust NF, Cacabelos D, Burri L, Berge K, Wergedahl H, Christensen B, Portero-Otin M, Viste A, Pamplona R, Berge RK, Bjorndal B (2012) Fish oil and 3-thia fatty acid have additive effects on lipid metabolism but antagonistic effects on oxidative damage when fed to rats for 50 weeks. J Nutr Biochem. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2011.08.006