Capsaicinoids lower plasma cholesterol and improve endothelial function in hamsters
- 492 Downloads
Capsaicinoids are the active compounds in chili pepper. The present study investigated the effect of capsaicinoids on plasma lipids, functionality of aorta including atherosclerotic plaque development, cholesterol absorption biomarker, fecal sterol excretion, and gene expression of major receptors, enzymes, and transporters involved in cholesterol metabolism.
Hamsters were divided into five groups and fed a high-cholesterol diet containing 0 % (CON), 0.010 % (LD), 0.015 % (MD), 0.020 % (HD), and 0.030 % (VD) capsaicinoids, respectively, for 6 weeks. Plasma lipids were measured using the enzymatic kits, and the gene expression of transporters, enzymes, and receptors involved in cholesterol absorption and metabolism was quantified using the quantitative PCR. Endothelial function was assessed by measuring the acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxations in aorta.
Capsaicinoids reduced plasma total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triacylglycerols with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol being unaffected. All four experimental groups had a decrease in the atherosclerotic plaque compared with CON. Dietary capsaicinoids increased the fecal excretion of total acidic sterols possibly mediated by up-regulation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase and down-regulation of liver X receptor alpha. Plasma sterol analysis demonstrated that capsaicinoids decreased the ratio of plasma campesterol/cholesterol, suggesting they decreased cholesterol absorption. Capsaicinoids could improve the endothelium-dependent relaxations and reduce the endothelium-dependent contractions by inhibiting the gene expression of COX-2. However, no dose-dependent effect of capsaicinoids on these parameters was seen.
Capsaicinoids were beneficial in improving lipoprotein profile and aortic function in hamsters fed a high-cholesterol diet.
KeywordsCholesterol Capsaicin Capsaicinoids Aorta CYP7A1 COX-2 Vascular reactivity
This project was supported by a grant from National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC).
- 7.Srinivasan MR, Sambaiah K, Satyananrayana MN, Rao MVL (1980) Influence of red pepper and capsaicin on growth, blood constituents and nitrogen balance in rats. Nutr Rep Int 21(3):455–467Google Scholar
- 8.Seo SJ, Kim J, Noh SK (2009) Effect of enteral capsaicin on the lymphatic absorption and fats in rat. Han’guk Sikp’um Yongyang Kwahak Hoechi 38:1712–1717Google Scholar
- 13.Warnick GR, Benderson J, Albers N (1982) Dextran sulfate-Mg2+ precipitation procedure for quantitation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Clin Chem 28:1379–1388Google Scholar
- 19.Srinivasan K, Sambaiah K (1991) The effect of spices on cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity and on serum and hepatic cholesterol levels in the rat. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 61(4):364–369Google Scholar
- 23.Wong WT, Tian XY, Chen Y, Leung FP, Liu L, Lee HK, Ng CF, Xu A, Yao X, Vanhoutte PM, Tipoe GL, Huang Y (2010) Bone morphogenic protein-4 impairs endothelial function through oxidative stress-dependent cyclooxygenase-2 upregulation: implications on hypertension. Circ Res 107:984–991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 25.Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on Capsaicin, European Commission Health & Consumer Protection Directorate-General: SCF/CS/FLAV/FLAVOUR/8 ADD1 Final. 28 Feb 2002Google Scholar