Serum taurine and risk of coronary heart disease: a prospective, nested case–control study
- 492 Downloads
Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a molecule obtained from diet, is involved in bile acid conjugation, blood pressure regulation, anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation. We performed the first prospective study of taurine and CHD risk.
We conducted a case–control study nested in the New York University Women’s Health Study to evaluate the association between circulating taurine levels and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Taurine was measured in two yearly pre-diagnostic serum samples of 223 CHD cases and 223 matched controls and averaged for a more reliable measurement of long-term taurine levels.
Mean serum taurine was positively related to age and dietary intake of poultry, niacin, vitamin B1, fiber and iron, and negatively related to dietary intake of saturated fat (all p values ≤0.05). There was no statistically significant association between serum taurine levels and the risk of CHD in the overall study population. The adjusted ORs for CHD in increasing taurine tertiles were 1.0 (reference), 0.85 (95% CI, 0.51–1.40) and 0.66 (0.39–1.13; p for trend = 0.14). There was a significant inverse association between serum taurine and CHD risk among women with high total serum cholesterol (>250 mg/dL) (adjusted OR = 0.39 (0.19–0.83) for the third versus first tertile; p for trend = 0.02) but not among those with low total serum cholesterol (p for interaction = 0.01). The data suggest a possible inverse association of serum taurine with diabetes and hypertension risk.
The findings suggest that high levels of taurine may be protective against CHD among individuals with high serum cholesterol levels.
KeywordsTaurine Serum Coronary heart disease NYUWHS Epidemiology
This research was supported by U.S. grants: NIH grants ES000260, CA16087, CA098661 and American Heart Association grant 0835569D. The authors thank Mr. Alan Bowers and Mrs. Yelena Afanasyeva for their involvement in the study.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.AHA (2009) 2009 Update at-a-glance. American Heart Association, Dallas, pp 1–36Google Scholar
- 4.Yamori Y, Nara Y, Ikeda K, Mizushima S (1996) Is taurine a preventive nutritional factor of cardiovascular diseases or just a biological marker of nutrition? Adv Exp Med Biol 403:623–629Google Scholar
- 6.Huxtable RJ (1992) Physiological actions of taurine. Physiol Rev 72:101–163Google Scholar
- 9.Greenland S, Robins J (1994) Invited commentary: ecologic studies—biases, misconceptions, and counterexamples. Am J Epidemiol 139:747–760Google Scholar
- 10.Mizushima S, Nara Y, Sawamura M, Yamori Y (1996) Effects of oral taurine supplementation on lipids and sympathetic nerve tone. Adv Exp Med Biol 403:615–622Google Scholar
- 11.Zhang M, Bi LF, Fang JH, Su XL, Da GL et al (2004) Beneficial effects of taurine on serum lipids in overweight or obese non-diabetic subjects. Amino Acids 26:267–271Google Scholar
- 12.Liu L, Liu L, Ding J, Huang Z, He B et al (2001) Ethnic and environmental differences in various markers of dietary intake and blood pressure among Chinese Han and three other minority peoples of China: results from the WHO cardiovascular diseases and alimentary comparison (CARDIAC) study. Hepertens Res 24:315–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.Block G, Hartman AM (1989) Issues in reproducibility and validity of dietary studies. Am J Clin Nutr 50:1133–1138Google Scholar
- 18.Rose GA, Blackburn H, Gillum RF, Prineas RJ (1982) Cardiovascular survey methods. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 21.Hunter D (1998) Biochemical indicators of dietary intake. In: Willett W (ed) Nutritional epidemiology, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 174–243Google Scholar
- 23.McNamara JR, Huang C, Massov T, Leary ET, Warnick GR et al (1994) Modification of the dextran-Mg2 + high-density lipoprotein cholesterol precipitation method for use with previously frozen plasma. Clin Chem 40:233–239Google Scholar
- 24.Kimberly MM, Leary ET, Cole TG, Waymack PP (1999) Selection, validation, standardization, and performance of a designated comparison method for HDL-cholesterol for use in the cholesterol reference method laboratory network. Clin Chem 45:1803–1812Google Scholar
- 25.Breslow N, Day NE (1980) Conditional logistic regression for matched sets. In: Davis W (ed) Statistical methods in cancer research vol 1 the analysis of case-control studies. IARC, Lyon, pp 248–279Google Scholar
- 34.Holvoet P, Harris TB, Tracy RP, Verhamme P, Newman AB et al (2003) Association of high coronary heart disease risk status with circulating oxidized LDL in the well-functioning elderly: findings from the health, aging, and body composition study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23:1444–1448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 39.Pasantes-Morales H, Quesada O, Alcocer L, Sánchez Olea R (1989) Taurine content in foods. Nutr Rep Int 40:793–801Google Scholar
- 40.Lourenço R, Camilo ME (2002) Taurine: a conditionally essential amino acid in humans? An overview in health and disease. Nutr Hosp 17:262–270Google Scholar
- 41.Kim ES, Kim KJ, Yim MH, Joeng Y, Ko YS, Watanabe T, Nakatsuka H, Nakatsuka S, Matsuda-Inoguchi N, Shimbo S, Ikeda M (2003) Dietary taurine intake and serum taurine levels of women on Jeju Island. Adv Exp Med Biol 526:277–283Google Scholar
- 42.Elizarova E, Nedosugova LV (1996) First experiments in taurine administration for diabetes mellitus—the effect of erythrocyte membranes. Adv Exp Med Biol 403:583–588Google Scholar
- 43.Koenig K, Toniolo P, Bruning P, Bonfrer J, Shore R, Pasternack B (1993) Reliability of serum prolactin measurements in women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarker Prev 2:411–414Google Scholar