A sodium-bicarbonated mineral water reduces gallbladder emptying and postprandial lipaemia: A randomised four-way crossover study



Sodium-bicarbonated mineral waters are reported to have beneficial digestive and hypocholesterolaemic properties. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of consumption of a sodium-bicarbonated mineral water (BW) with or without a meal, compared to a low mineral content water as the control water (CW), on postprandial serum triacylglycerols (TAG), cholecystokinin (CCK) and gallbladder volume.


The study design was a four-way randomised controlled crossover trial. Healthy adult men and women (>18 and <40 years, TAG <2.82 mmol/L) consumed 0.5 L of CW + standard meal; 0.5 L of BW + standard meal; and 0.5 L of CW without meal or 0.5 L of BW without meal.


BW consumed without meal had no significant effect on the study parameters compared to CW. However, BW with meal induced a lower concentration of serum TAG at 30 min (p = 0.01) and 60 min (p = 0.03) postprandial times, lower CCK concentrations at 30 min (p = 0.002), and higher gallbladder volume at 30 min (p = 0.03), 60 min (p = 0.01) and 120 min (p = 0.04). Gallbladder ejection fraction was lower with the BW (p = 0.03), whilst area under the curve and peak contraction amplitude (lowest gallbladder volume) were higher (p = 0.01, p = 0.02, respectively) compared to the CW.


Consumption of BW with a meal induces lower levels of CCK and reduces gallbladder emptying and postprandial TAG levels. It is proposed that this sodium-bicarbonated mineral water could be used as part of the habitual diet by the general population in order to reduce cardiovascular risk.

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The authors are grateful to I. Wright and A. Díaz-Alvarez for technical support, and to the volunteers of this study. This study was supported by Vichy Catalán SL (Barcelona, Spain) and a JAE-predoc grant from European Social Fund and CSIC, Spain.

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The authors have declared no conflict of interest.

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Correspondence to M. Pilar Vaquero.

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Toxqui, L., Pérez-Granados, A.M., Blanco-Rojo, R. et al. A sodium-bicarbonated mineral water reduces gallbladder emptying and postprandial lipaemia: A randomised four-way crossover study. Eur J Nutr 51, 607–614 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-011-0244-x

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  • Cardiovascular risk
  • Cholecystokinin
  • Gallbladder emptying
  • Humans
  • Postprandial triacylglycerols
  • Sodium-bicarbonated mineral water