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Neuroprotective effect of cocoa flavonids on in vitro oxidative stress

An ERRATUM to this article was published on 10 December 2008

Abstract

Background

Cocoa is a rich source of flavonoids that, among other functions, can act as antioxidants. In living systems, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate an array of intracellular cascades, including mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), that are closely associated with cell death or survival pathways.

Aim of the study

To ascertain the role of a cocoa extract and its main flavonoid, (-)-epicatechin, in an in vitro model of oxidative stress induced in a neuronal cell line.

Methods

We analyzed ROS production by fluorometry (dichlorofluorescein assay), and activation of MAPK pathways including extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK 1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p-38, by Western blot analysis.

Results

Cells incubated with cocoa extract or (-)-epicatechin, reduced ROS production in a dose-dependent manner, reaching 35% inhibition. pJNK and p38, involved in apoptosis, were down-modulated by cocoa extract and (-)-epicatechin with p38 inhibition reaching up to 70%.

Conclusions

Our results show that cocoa extract and (-)-epicatechin may exert a neuroprotective action by reducing ROS production and modulating MAPK activation.

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Abbreviations

AD:

Alzheimer’s disease

ANOVA:

Analysis of variance

Aβ:

Amyloid-β protein

DA:

diacetate

DCF:

2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein

DMSO:

Dimethyl sulfoxide

ERK 1/2:

Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2

GSTPi:

Glutathione-S-transferase enzyme-class Pi

H2DCF:

reduced DCF

JNK:

c-Jun N-terminal kinase

LDH:

Lactate dehydrogenase

MAPK:

Mitogen-activated protein kinases

ORAC:

Oxygen radical absorbance capacity

PMSF:

Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride

ROS:

Reactive oxygen species

RT:

Room temperature

SOD:

Superoxide dismutase

TBS:

Tris buffered saline solution

TBST:

TBS with 0.1% Tween 20

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Acknowledgments

E.R. is the recipient of fellowships from the Generalitat de Catalunya (2003FI 00578 and 2005BE 00709).

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Correspondence to Margarida Castell.

Additional information

An erratum to this article can be found under doi:10.1007/s00394-008-0766-z.

An erratum to this article can be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-008-0766-z

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Ramiro-Puig, E., Casadesús, G., Lee, Hg. et al. Neuroprotective effect of cocoa flavonids on in vitro oxidative stress. Eur J Nutr 48, 54–61 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-008-0761-4

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-008-0761-4

Keywords

  • cocoa
  • c-JNK
  • MAPK
  • neuronal damage
  • oxidative stress