Orange juice is a good folate source in respect to folate content and stability during storage and simulated digestion
- 336 Downloads
Estimated average folate intake in Sweden is less than 55% of the recommended daily intake (RDI) for women of childbearing age (Becker and Pearson in Riksmaten 1997–1998 Kostvanor och näringsintag i Sverige. National Food Administration, Uppsala, pp 34, 44, 121, 2002). Because a good folate status reduces the risk of neural tube defects, mandatory folic acid fortification is discussed in some European countries. This however, could lead to exposure to unintentionally high amounts of folic acid for some population groups, therefore targeted folic acid fortification could be an alternative.
To (1) determine natural folate content in three popular brands of orange juice sold in Sweden, (2) determine stability of natural folate and folic acid fortificant during shelf life in a folic acid/iron fortified orange juice, (3) determine folate stability in four juices during simulated household consumption for one week and (4) determine the in vitro bioaccessibility of natural folate in one brand of orange juice using the TNO gastroIntestinal Model (TIM).
Natural folate content in juices was determined using RP-HPLC-FL. To determine folic acid content and confirm RP-HPLC-FL values LCMS was used. Stability during shelf life was determined in unopened bottles of a folic acid/iron fortified juice and for one week in four popular juices under household consumption conditions with reopening of bottles daily. For an in vitro folate bioaccessibility experiment in orange juice the TNO TIM Model was used.
5-CH3-H4folate was the dominant natural folate form in the juices with contents ranging from 16–30 µg/100 g. Shelf life losses of folic acid fortificant were 1–4%. During one week simulated household consumption 5-CH3-H4folate content decreased by up to 7% (n.s). Bioaccessibility of natural folate in orange juice was almost 100%. Most folate was released for absorption in jejunum between 60–120 min after trial start.
Orange juice may be considered a good source of natural folate in respect to content and stability during storage and simulated digestion. Moreover, added folic acid fortificant in a folic acid/iron fortified orange juice was stable during shelf life.
Keywordsfolate folic acid fortification orange juice in vitro bioaccessibility
We thank R. Havenaar and M. Verwei at TNO for carrying out the TIM experiments. JO-Bolaget (M Torres) is acknowledged for preparation of folic acid/iron fortified orange juice and donation of juice concentrate. Folate standards were kind gifts from Merck Eprova AG, Schaffhausen. This study was supported by FORMAS and JO-Bolaget. G. Ekström, JO-Bolaget and M. Jägerstad, SLU are gratefully acknowledged for valuable comments on the manuscript.
- 1.Arkbåge K, Verwei M, Havenaar R, Witthöft C (2003) Bioaccessibility of folic acid and (6S)-5-methyltetrahydrofolate decreases after the addition of folate-binding protein to yoghurt as studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model. J Nutr 133:3678–3683Google Scholar
- 2.Bailey L, Berry R (2005) Folic acid supplementation and the occurrence of congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, multiple births, and miscarriage. Am J Clin Nutr 81:1213S–1217SGoogle Scholar
- 3.Becker M, Pearson M (2002) Riksmaten 1997–1998 Kostvanor och näringsintag i Sverige. National Food Administration, Uppsala, pp 34, 44, 121Google Scholar
- 14.Kim Y (2004) Will mandatory fortification prevent or promote cancer? Am J Clin Nutr 80:1123–1128Google Scholar
- 15.Konings EJ (1999) A validated liquid chromatographic method for determining folates in vegetables, milk powder, liver and flour. J AOAC Int 82:119–125Google Scholar
- 17.Minekus M, Marteau P, Havenaar R, Huis in ´t Veld JHJ (1995) A multicompartimental dynamic computer-controlled model simulating the stomach and small intestine. Altern Lab Anim 23:197–209Google Scholar
- 18.National Food Administration (NFA). Swedish Database version 04.1.1. http://www.18.104.22.168/livsmedelsok/. Accessed 26 April 2007
- 25.Seyoum E, Selhub J (1998) Properties of food folates determined by stability and susceptibility to intestinal pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase action. J Nutr 128:1956–1960Google Scholar
- 26.The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health (2007) Nyttan att berika mjöl med folsyra i syfte att minska risken för neuralrörsdefekter. En systematisk litteraturöversikt. (Benefits of fortifying flour with folic acid to reduce risk of neural tube defects.) Stockholm, Sweden, SBUGoogle Scholar
- 29.Verwei M (2004) Bioaccessibility of folate from several liquid and solid food products. Dissertation, Wageningen University, Wageningen, pp 62–64Google Scholar
- 30.Verwei M, Arkbåge K, Havenaar R, van den Berg H, Witthöft C, Schaafsma G (2003) Folic acid and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in fortified milk are bioaccessible as determined in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model. J Nutr 133:2377–2383Google Scholar
- 32.Wei MM, Bailey LB, Toth JP, Gregory JF (1996) Bioavailability for humans of deuterium-labeled monoglutamyl and polyglutamyl folates is affected by selected foods. J Nutr 126:3100–3108Google Scholar