Beyond Deficiency:

Potential benefits of increased intakes of vitamin K for bone and vascular health


Vitamin K is well known for its role in the synthesis of a number of blood coagulation factors. During recent years vitamin K-dependent proteins were discovered to be of vital importance for bone and vascular health. Recommendations for dietary vitamin K intake have been made on the basis of the hepatic requirements for the synthesis of blood coagulation factors. Accumulating evidence suggests that the requirements for other functions than blood coagulation may be higher. This paper is the result of a closed workshop (Paris, November 2002) in which a number of European vitamin K experts reviewed the available data and formulated their standpoint with respect to recommended dietary vitamin K intake and the use of vitamin K-containing supplements.

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Correspondence to Cees Vermeer PhD.

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This paper has been sponsored by an unrestricted education grant from Roche Vitamins Europe Ltd.

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Vermeer, C., Shearer, M.J., Zittermann, A. et al. Beyond Deficiency:. Eur J Nutr 43, 325–335 (2004).

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Key words

  • vitamin K
  • gammacarboxy glutamate
  • osteoporosis
  • bone mineral density
  • cardiovascular disease