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Predicting survival in heart failure: a risk score based on machine-learning and change point algorithm

A Correction to this article was published on 29 November 2021

This article has been updated



Machine learning (ML) algorithm can improve risk prediction because ML can select features and segment continuous variables effectively unbiased. We generated a risk score model for mortality with ML algorithms in East-Asian patients with heart failure (HF).


From the Korean Acute Heart Failure (KorAHF) registry, we used the data of 3683 patients with 27 continuous and 44 categorical variables. Grouped Lasso algorithm was used for the feature selection, and a novel continuous variable segmentation algorithm which is based on change-point analysis was developed for effectively segmenting the ranges of the continuous variables. Then, a risk score was assigned to each feature reflecting nonlinear relationship between features and survival times, and an integer score of maximum 100 was calculated for each patient.


During 3-year follow-up time, 32.8% patients died. Using grouped Lasso, we identified 15 highly significant independent clinical features. The calculated risk score of each patient ranged between 1 and 71 points with a median of 36 (interquartile range: 27–45). The 3-year survival differed according to the quintiles of the risk score, being 80% and 17% in the 1st and 5th quintile, respectively. In addition, ML risk score had higher AUCs than MAGGIC-HF score to predict 1-year mortality (0.751 vs. 0.711, P < 0.001).


In East-Asian patients with HF, a novel risk score model based on ML and the new continuous variable segmentation algorithm performs better for mortality prediction than conventional prediction models.

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Unique identifier: INCT01389843

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This work was supported by Research of Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [2010-E63003-00, 2011-E63002-00, 2012-E63005-00, 2013-E63003-00, 2013-E63003-01, 2013-E63003-02, and 2016-ER6303-00]. This work was also supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea [2017R1A5A1015626, 2018R1A2A3075511, 2020R1I1A1A01073151].

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Correspondence to Woong Kook or Dong-Ju Choi.

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The original online version of this article was revised: The Funding section has been revised.

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Kim, W., Park, J.J., Lee, HY. et al. Predicting survival in heart failure: a risk score based on machine-learning and change point algorithm. Clin Res Cardiol 110, 1321–1333 (2021).

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  • Heart failure
  • Machine learning
  • Grouped Lasso
  • Prognostic model
  • Mortality
  • Change-point analysis