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Table 2 Patient characteristics: all patients with heart failure (N = 3515)

From: The impact of heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on mortality in patients presenting with breathlessness

Variable Missing All patients with heart failure HeFREF HeFNEF HeFREF and COPD HeFNEF and COPD P
N = 3515 N = 1181 N = 583 N = 1148 N = 603
Demographics        
 Age (years) 0 73 (± 11) 69 (± 12) 75 (± 10) 73 (± 10) 77 (± 8) < 0.001
 Sex (male)—N (%) 0 2336 (67) 871 (74) 326 (56) 851 (74) 288 (48) < 0.001
 BMI [kg/m2] 13 28.3 (± 5.9) 28.7 (± 5.7) 29.9 (± 6.8) 26.9 (± 5.2) 28.4 (± 6.3) < 0.001
 SR [N (%)] 65 2148 (62) 809 (70) 278 (48) 754 (67) 307 (52) < 0.001
 Diabetes [N (%)] 206 742 (22) 278 (25) 129 (24) 216 (20) 119 (21) 0.07
 IHD [N (%)] 12 1848 (53) 713 (61) 199 (35) 735 (64) 201 (33) < 0.001
 Documented COPD in medical records [N (%)] 12 341 (10) 74 (6) 44 (8) 149 (13) 74 (12) < 0.001
 Never smoked [N (%)] 237 919 (28) 332 (30) 204 (37) 215 (20) 168 (30) < 0.001
Symptoms        
 NYHA Class III/IV [N (%)] 59 1154 (33) 373 (33) 164 (28) 424 (38) 193 (33) < 0.001
Blood results        
 NTproBNP (ng/L) 461 1421 (695–3109) 1444 (536–3486) 1192 (737–2241) 1825 (708–4013) 1328 (773–2542) < 0.001
 Haemoglobin (g/dL) 294 13.3 (12.1–14.4) 13.6 (12.3–14.7) 13.1 (11.8–14.2) 13.3 (12.2–14.4) 12.9 (11.7–14.2) < 0.001
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 287 58 (43–72) 59 (46–74) 59 (43–74) 56 (43–70) 56 (41–69) < 0.001
 Albumin (g/L) 281 37 (35–40) 38 (35–40) 37 (35–39) 37 (35–40) 37 (34–39) < 0.001
Spirometry        
 FEV1:FVC 0 0.68 (± 0.16) 0.80 (± 0.10) 0.80 (± 0.08) 0.56 (± 0.12) 0.56 (± 0.11) < 0.001
Medications        
 Loop diuretic [N (%)] 37 2505 (72) 872 (75) 368 (64) 857 (75) 408 (68) < 0.001
 MRA [N (%)] 37 825 (24) 371 (32) 72 (13) 309 (27) 73 (27) < 0.001
 ACEI or ARB [N (%)] 37 2517 (72) 906 (78) 360 (62) 890 (78) 361 (61) < 0.001
 βB [N (%)] 37 2039 (59) 744 (64) 346 (60) 639 (56) 310 (52) < 0.001
Echocardiography        
 Severe LVSD [N (%)] 0 916 (26) 457 (39) 0 (0) 459 (40) 0 (0)
 LVEF by Simpsons (%) 1511 38.2 (± 12.6) 32.8 (± 8.0) 54.6 (± 6.7) 32.4 (± 8.2) 55.8 (± 7.64)
  1. Continuous data are presented as mean (± standard deviation) or median (interquartile range), categorical data are presented as N (percentage)
  2. N number; HeFREF heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction; HeFNEF heart failure with normal ejection fraction; COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; BMI body mass index; SR sinus rhythm; IHD ischaemic heart disease; NYHA New York Heart Association; NTproBNP N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide; eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate; FEV1:FVC ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity; MRA mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist; ACEI angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB angiotensin receptor blocker; βB beta-blocker; LVSD left ventricular systolic dysfunction; LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction