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Table 1 Baseline characteristics by sex (n = 1161)

From: Sex differences in early dyspnea relief between men and women hospitalized for acute heart failure: insights from the RELAX-AHF study

Variables Totala (n = 1161) Mena (n = 725) Womena (n = 436) p valueb
Demographics and HF characteristics
 Age (years) 72.0 (11.2) 69.8 (11.7) 75.8 (9.2) <0.0001 [S]
 Serelaxin administration (%) 581 (50.0%) 368 (50.8%) 213 (48.9%) 0.5295 [2]
 White 1096 (94.4%) 680 (93.8%) 416 (95.4%) 0.2450 [2]
 Geographic region     0.0001 [2]
  Eastern EU 562 (48.4%) 315 (43.4%) 247 (56.7%)  
  Western EU 204 (17.6%) 144 (19.9%) 60 (13.8%)  
  South America 71 (6.1%) 45 (6.2%) 26 (6.0%)  
  North America 114 (9.8%) 85 (11.7%) 29 (6.7%)  
  Israel 210 (18.1%) 136 (18.8%) 74 (17.0%)  
 US-Likec 786 (67.7%) 540 (74.5%) 246 (56.4%) <0.0001 [2]
 Left ventricular EF (%) 38.6 (14.6) 35.1 (13.2) 44.7 (14.9) <0.0001 [S]
 EF <40% 598 (54.8%) 446 (64.8%) 152 (37.7%) <0.0001 [2]
 Ischemic heart disease 603 (51.9%) 419 (57.8%) 184 (42.2%) <0.0001 [2]
 Time to randomization (h) 7.9 (4.6) 7.7 (4.8) 8.2 (4.4) 0.0384 [1]
 CHF 1 month prior 861 (74.2%) 557 (76.8%) 304 (69.7%) 0.0074 [2]
 HF hospitalization past year 397 (34.2%) 260 (35.9%) 137 (31.4%) 0.1225 [2]
 NYHA class 30 days before admission     0.0014 [2]
  I 323 (28.1%) 186 (25.8%) 137 (31.8%)  
  II 304 (26.4%) 174 (24.2%) 130 (30.2%)  
  III 389 (33.8%) 268 (37.2%) 121 (28.1%)  
  IV 135 (11.7%) 92 (12.8%) 43 (10.0%)  
Clinical variables
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 29.3 (5.7) 29.3 (5.3) 29.3 (6.3) 0.8964 [S]
 Syst. blood pressure (mmHg) 142.2 (16.6) 141.2 (16.5) 143.8 (16.7) 0.0110 [1]
 Diast. blood pressure (mmHg) 79.0 (14.2) 79.8 (14.0) 77.7 (14.5) 0.0125 [1]
 Heart rate (beats/min) 79.7 (14.9) 79.1 (14.5) 80.6 (15.6) 0.1093 [1]
 Respiratory rate (breaths/min) 21.9 (4.6) 21.7 (4.6) 22.3 (4.6) 0.0299 [1]
Congestion at baseline
 Edema 910 (78.9%) 578 (80.4%) 332 (76.3%) 0.1010 [2]
 Orthopnea 1106 (95.8%) 689 (95.8%) 417 (95.9%) 0.9773 [2]
 JVP 850 (75.5%) 533 (76.0%) 317 (74.6%) 0.5845 [2]
 Dyspnea on exertion 1136 (99.6%) 708 (99.7%) 428 (99.5%) 0.6351 [3]
 Dyspnea by VAS 44.2 (20.0) 44.7 (19.9) 43.4 (20.1) 0.2839 [1]
 Rales 1095 (94.8%) 679 (94.3%) 416 (95.6%) 0.3249 [2]
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 1006 (86.6%) 602 (83.0%) 404 (92.7%) <0.0001 [2]
 Hyperlipidemia 617 (53.1%) 405 (55.9%) 212 (48.6%) 0.0167 [2]
 Diabetes mellitus 551 (47.5%) 347 (47.9%) 204 (46.8%) 0.7229 [2]
 Cigarette smoking 153 (13.2%) 127 (17.5%) 26 (6.0%) <0.0001 [2]
 Stroke or other cerebrovascular event 157 (13.5%) 101 (13.9%) 56 (12.8%) 0.5999 [2]
 Peripheral vascular disease 155 (13.4%) 115 (15.9%) 40 (9.2%) 0.0012 [2]
 Asthma, bronchitis, or COPD 184 (15.8%) 138 (19.0%) 46 (10.6%) 0.0001 [2]
 Atrial fibrillation at screening 479 (41.3%) 284 (39.2%) 195 (44.8%) 0.0608 [2]
 History of atrial fibrillation or flutter 602 (51.9%) 354 (48.8%) 248 (56.9%) 0.0078 [2]
 History of CRT or ICD procedures 294 (25.3%) 218 (30.1%) 76 (17.4%) <0.0001 [2]
 Myocardial infarction 403 (34.7%) 286 (39.4%) 117 (26.8%) <0.0001 [2]
 Depression 60 (5.2%) 34 (4.7%) 26 (6.0%) 0.3425 [2]
Devices
 Pacemaker 121 (10.4%) 70 (9.7%) 51 (11.7%) 0.2701 [2]
 Implantable cardiac defibrillator 154 (13.3%) 136 (18.8%) 18 (4.1%) <0.0001 [2]
 Biventricular pacing 113 (9.7%) 96 (13.2%) 17 (3.9%) <0.0001 [2]
Medication
 ACE inhibitor 633 (54.5%) 392 (54.1%) 241 (55.3%) 0.6894 [2]
 ACEi or ARBs 788 (67.9%) 492 (67.9%) 296 (67.9%) 0.9922 [2]
 Angiotensin-receptor blocker 185 (15.9%) 112 (15.4%) 73 (16.7%) 0.5594 [2]
 Beta-blocker 794 (68.4%) 507 (69.9%) 287 (65.8%) 0.1451 [2]
 Aldosterone antagonist 365 (31.4%) 240 (33.1%) 125 (28.7%) 0.1151 [2]
 Oral loop diuretic 30 days prior 44.7 (65.2) 50.5 (72.3) 34.9 (49.6) <0.0001 [S]
 Digoxin 228 (19.6%) 116 (16.0%) 112 (25.7%) <0.0001 [2]
 Nitrates at randomization 81 (7.0%) 42 (5.8%) 39 (8.9%) 0.0412 [2]
Baseline laboratory data
 Sodium (mmol/L) 140.82 (3.59) 140.76 (3.60) 140.93 (3.57) 0.4183 [1]
 Phosphate (mmol/L) 1.19 (0.32) 1.18 (0.36) 1.20 (0.23) 0.3547 [S]
 Calcium (mmol/L) 2.26 (0.15) 2.26 (0.16) 2.27 (0.14) 0.8622 [S]
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 12.79 (1.86) 13.11 (1.89) 12.27 (1.68) <0.0001 [S]
 White blood cell count (×10/L) 8.179 (2.843) 8.022 (2.637) 8.439 (3.142) 0.0243 [S]
 Lymphocyte (%) 18.17 (7.81) 18.50 (7.81) 17.64 (7.78) 0.0803 [1]
 Potassium (mmol/L) 4.27 (0.63) 4.31 (0.64) 4.21 (0.61) 0.0098 [1]
 Creatinine (μmol/L) 116.58 (33.15) 126.28 (32.81) 100.58 (26.94) <0.0001 [S]
 Uric acid (μmol/L) 475.8 (135.9) 488.1 (137.7) 455.4 (130.6) <0.0001 [1]
 Troponin T (μg/Ld) 0.035 (0.033, 0.037) 0.037 (0.035, 0.040) 0.031 (0.029, 0.034) 0.0015 [S]
 BUN (mmol/L) 9.78 (4.03) 10.01 (3.96) 9.40 (4.10) 0.0132 [1]
 Cystatin-C (mg/Ld) 1.45 (1.43, 1.48) 1.46 (1.43, 1.49) 1.44 (1.40, 1.48) 0.4950 [1]
 Alanine aminotransferase (U/Ld) 23.5 (22.7, 24.4) 23.8 (22.7, 25.0) 23.1 (21.8, 24.5) 0.4078 [1]
 NT-proBNP (ng/Ld) 5054 (4795, 5326) 4936 (4615, 5279) 5253 (4830, 5714) 0.2579 [1]
 eGFR (mL/min per 1.73 m2) 53.49 (13.03) 54.81 (12.84) 51.32 (13.06) <0.0001 [1]
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.09 (1.17) 3.97 (1.13) 4.30 (1.20) <0.0001 [1]
 Glucose (mmol/L) 7.75 (3.57) 7.62 (3.48) 7.96 (3.71) 0.1202 [1]
 Albumin (g/L) 40.23 (4.33) 40.28 (4.57) 40.15 (3.91) 0.6229 [S]
  1. aMean (SD), or geometric mean (95% CI) if log transformed, for continuous variables, n (%) for categorical variables (% based on total number of patients with a non-missing value of the characteristic)
  2. bBased on t test [1], Chi squared test [2], Fisher’s exact test [3], or the Satterthwaite method due to unequal variances in comparison groups [S]
  3. cUS-Like in the analyses indicates Region 1 vs. Region 2. Region 1 includes patients from United States, France, The Netherlands, Israel, Spain, Germany, Italy, and Poland. Region 2 includes patients from Argentina, Hungary, and Romania
  4. dThe following baseline laboratory variables have been log transformed: alanine aminotransferase, NT-proBNP, troponin T, cystatin-C