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German version of the outcome expectations for exercise scale-2

Psychometric properties in geriatric patients after hip or pelvic fractures with fear of falling

Deutsche Version der Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scale-2

Testgütekriterien bei geriatrischen Patienten nach Hüft- oder Beckenfraktur mit Sturzangst



Physical exercise is associated with many health benefits. Especially for older adults it is challenging to achieve an appropriate adherence to exercise programs. The outcome expectations for exercise scale 2 (OEE-2) is a 13-item self-report questionnaire to assess negative and positive exercise outcome expectations in older adults. The aim of this study was to translate the OEE‑2 into German and to assess the psychometric properties of this version.


The OEE‑2 was translated from English into German including a forward and backward translation process. Psychometric properties were assessed in 115 patients with hip/pelvic fractures (76% female, mean age 82.5 years) and fear of falling during geriatric inpatient rehabilitation.


Principal component analyses could confirm a two-factor solution (positive/negative OEE) that explained 58% of the total variance, with an overall internal reliability of α = 0.89. Cronbach’s α for the 9‑item positive OEE subscale was 0.89, for the 4‑item negative OEE subscale 0.79. The two subscales were correlated with rs = 0.49. Correlations of the OEE total score were highest with the perceived ability to manage falls, prefracture leisure time activities and prior training history (rs = 0.35–0.41).


These results revealed good internal reliability and construct validity of the German version of the OEE‑2. The instrument is valid for measuring physical exercise outcome expectations in older, German-speaking patients with hip or pelvic fractures and fear of falling.



Körperliches Training hat viele gesundheitliche Vorteile. Besonders älteren Menschen fällt es schwer, eine ausreichende Adhärenz bei Trainingsprogrammen zu erreichen. Ein Fragebogen mit 13 Fragen zur Beurteilung der negativen und positiven Erwartungen älterer Menschen hinsichtlich der Effekte eines körperlichen Trainings ist die „Outcome Expectations of Exercise Scale-2“ (OEE-2). Ziel der Studie war die Übersetzung des OEE‑2 und die Beurteilung der Testgütekriterien der deutschen Version.


Die Originalversion des OEE‑2 wurde in einem Vorwärts- und Rückwärtsprozess vom Englischen ins Deutsche übersetzt. Die Testgütekriterien des Fragebogens wurden bei 115 Patienten nach Hüft- oder Beckenfraktur mit Sturzangst (76 % weiblich, Durchschnittsalter 82,5 Jahre) während einer stationären Rehabilitation untersucht.


Eine Hauptkomponentenanalyse bestätigte das Zwei-Faktoren-Modell (positiver/negativer erwarteter Nutzen) des Fragebogens, das 58 % der Varianz der Ergebnisse erklärte. Dabei war die interne Konsistenz t insgesamt α = 0,89. Cronbach’s α für die 9 Fragen der Subskala mit positivem erwartetem Nutzen war 0,89 bzw. 0,79 für die 4 Fragen der Subskala mit negativem erwartetem Nutzen. Beide Subskalen korrelierten mit rs = 0,49. Der Fragebogen zum positiven erwarteten Nutzen korrelierte am meisten mit der Selbstwirksamkeit zur Vermeidung von Stürzen, der körperlichen Aktivität vor der Fraktur und früheren Trainingsaktivitäten (rs = 0,35–0,41).


Die Ergebnisse zeigen eine gute interne Konsistenz und Konstruktvalidität der deutschen Version der OEE‑2 bei Patienten nach Hüft- oder Beckenfraktur mit Sturzangst. Das Instrument ist valide, um bei älteren, deutschsprachigen Menschen mit Hüft- oder Beckenfraktur und Sturzangst die Handlungsergebniserwartungen hinsichtlich eines körperlichen Trainings zu erheben.

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The authors thank Barbara Resnick for permission to translate the 13-item OEE‑2 and for providing expert advice related to the questionnaire.


The study was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research [PROFinD, grant number 01EC1007A].

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Corresponding author

Correspondence to Michaela Gross.

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Conflict of interest

C. Becker has received consultant fees from E. Lilly company and Bosch Health care. He has also received speaker honoraria from Amgen and Nutricia. M. Gross, U. Lindemann, K. Kampe, A. Dautel, M. Kohler, D. Albrecht, G. Büchele, M. Hautzinger and K. Pfeiffer declare that they have no competing interests.

This study has been approved by the ethical review committees of the Faculties of Medicine in Tübingen (project number: 113/2011BO2). In accordance with the ethical standards and the Declaration of Helsinki, informed consent to participate in the study was obtained from all participants (or legal guardian). The trial was registered under (ISRCTN79191813). All data are available on personal request from the corresponding author.

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Data availability

All data are available on personal request from the corresponding author.



Table 5 The German version of the Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scale-2

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Gross, M., Lindemann, U., Kampe, K. et al. German version of the outcome expectations for exercise scale-2. Z Gerontol Geriat 54, 582–589 (2021).

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  • Older adults
  • Exercise training
  • Positive exercise outcome expectation
  • Negative exercise outcome expectation
  • Psychometric properties


  • Ältere Menschen
  • Körperliches Training
  • Positive Handlungsergebniserwartungen
  • Negative Handlungsergebniserwartungen
  • Testgütekriterien