Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie

, Volume 46, Issue 7, pp 635–638 | Cite as

Redox balance in the aged endothelium

  • P. Czypiorski
  • L.L. Rabanter
  • J. Altschmied
  • J. Haendeler
Beiträge zum Themenschwerpunkt

Abstract

The endothelium is located in a strategic anatomical position within the blood vessel wall and thus constitutes a barrier between the blood and all tissues. The integrity of the endothelial cells, which line the entire circulatory system like wallpaper, is essential to prevent the onset of cardiovascular disorders. Aging is one of the major risk factors for the development of heart and vascular diseases. However, over the past years it has become clear that the functional capacity of endothelial cells declines with age and that physiological aging occurs independently of pathological changes. One important mechanism contributing to the onset of the aging process is the disturbance of the cellular redox homeostasis. Two key molecules involved in maintaining the delicate balance between oxidative and antioxidative systems are NADPH oxidase 4, an enzyme whose sole function is to produce reactive oxygen species and the oxidoreductase thioredoxin-1, which reduces oxidized proteins. Therefore, this review will focus on the role of these two proteins in cardiovascular aging.

Keywords

Aging Endothelial cells NADPH oxidase 4 Oxidative stress Thioredoxin-1 

Redoxgleichgewicht im gealterten Endothel

Zusammenfassung

Das Endothel befindet sich in einer strategischen anatomischen Position in der Blutgefäßwand und stellt somit die Barriere zwischen dem Blut und allen Geweben dar. Die Integrität der Endothelzellen, die das gesamte Kreislaufsystem wie eine Tapete auskleiden, ist essenziell für die Verhinderung kardiovaskulärer Erkrankungen. Alterung ist einer der Hauptrisikofaktoren für die Entwicklung von Herz- und Gefäßerkrankungen. Allerdings hat sich über die letzten Jahre gezeigt, dass die Funktionen von Endothelzellen mit zunehmendem Alter abnehmen und dass es – unabhängig von pathologischen Veränderungen – einen physiologischen Alterungsprozess gibt. Einer der wesentlichen Mechanismen, die zum Beginn des Alterungsprozesses beitragen, ist die Veränderung der zellulären Redoxhomöostase. Zwei Schlüsselmoleküle in der delikaten Balance zwischen oxidativen und antioxidativen Systemen sind die NADPH-Oxidase 4, ein Enzym, dessen einzige Funktion die Produktion reaktiver Sauerstoffspezies ist, und die Oxidoreduktase Thioredoxin-1, die oxidierte Proteine reduziert. Daher konzentriert sich dieser Übersichtsbeitrag auf die Rolle dieser beiden Proteine in der kardiovaskulären Alterung.

Schlüsselwörter

Alterung Endothelzellen NADPH-Oxidase 4 Oxidativer Stress Thioredoxin-1 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Czypiorski
    • 2
  • L.L. Rabanter
    • 2
  • J. Altschmied
    • 2
  • J. Haendeler
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Central Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory MedicineUniversity of DuesseldorfDuesseldorfGermany
  2. 2.Molecular Aging ResearchIUF-Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental MedicineDuesseldorfGermany

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