Pediatric Surgery International

, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 357–363 | Cite as

Developmental outcome at 3 years of age of infants following surgery for infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

  • Alison Loughran-FowldsEmail author
  • Dermot T. McDowell
  • Claire Galea
  • Robert Halliday
  • Karen Walker
  • Nadia Badawi
  • Andrew J. A. Holland
Original Article



The study compared neurodevelopmental outcome at 3 years of age of infants with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) who underwent pyloromyotomy with healthy control infants in New South Wales, Australia.


Infants with IHPS as well as controls were recruited between August 2006 and July 2008. Developmental assessments were performed using the Bayley scales of infant and toddler development (version III) (BSITD-III) at 1 and 3 years of age.


Of the 43 infants originally assessed at 1 year, 39 returned for assessment at 3 years (90%). The majority were term infants (77%). Assessments were also performed on 156 control infants. Infants with IHPS scored significantly lower on four of the five Bayley subsets (cognitive, receptive and expressive language and fine motor) compared to control infants. Analysis of co-variance showed statistically significant results in favour of the control group for these four subsets.


Compared with the outcomes at 1 year, infants with IHPS at 3 years of age continue to score below controls in four of the BSITD-III subscales. This suggests they should have developmental follow-up with targeted clinical intervention. There is a need for further studies into functional impact and longer term outcomes.


Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis Neonate Outcome Development 



Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis


Bayley scales of infant and toddler development (version III)


General anaesthesia



We thank the parents and carers, and also surgical colleagues who gave permission for their infants to be enrolled in this study.


The DAISy study was initially funded by the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation (Grant 12-FY06-232). No funding grants were obtained or required for this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Alison Loughran-Fowlds declares she has no conflict of interest. Dermot T. McDowell declares he has no conflict of interest. Claire Galeaa declares she has no conflict of interest. Robert Halliday declares he has no conflict of interest. Karen Walker declares she has no conflict of interest. Nadia Badawi declares she has no conflict of interest. Andrew J. A. Holland declares he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Grace Centre for Newborn Intensive Care, The Children’s Hospital at WestmeadSydney Children’s Hospitals NetworkWestmeadAustralia
  2. 2.Sydney Medical SchoolThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Douglas Cohen Department of Paediatric Surgery, The Children’s Hospital at WestmeadSydney Children’s Hospitals NetworkSydneyAustralia
  4. 4.The Cerebral Palsy AllianceSydneyAustralia

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