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Intraoperative temperature regulation in children using a liquid-warming garment



Children undergoing operative intervention while induced under general anesthesia are at risk for experiencing a significant decrease in core body temperature that can lead to adverse systemic effects. Given that the head contributes an estimated 18% of a child’s body surface area, we theorized that a liquid-warming garment applied to the head could control a pediatric patient’s core body temperature during surgical procedures.


Patients undergoing elective, non-cranial, general surgical procedures were enrolled in the study. A head garment with an embedded network of tubing was placed on the patient. The garment connected to a computer-controlled water bath that managed the temperature of the water in the tubing through a feedback mechanism.


Ten patients with ages ranging from 1 day to 3 years (mean age 10.5 months) were enrolled in this study. The average procedure length was 82.5 min. The mean core body temperature throughout the procedure for all-comers was 36.5 ± 0.9 °C with an overall mean difference in maximum and minimum temperatures of 1.32 ± 1.1 °C.


A liquid-warming garment applied to the head of pediatric surgical patients is an innovative and relatively low-cost means to regulate and to maintain the ideal core body temperature of patients undergoing surgical procedures.

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This research was support by a grant from the Minnesota Medical Foundation, now the University of Minnesota Foundation.

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Correspondence to Mariya E. Skube.

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All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Skube, M.E., Acton, R.D., Koscheyev, V.S. et al. Intraoperative temperature regulation in children using a liquid-warming garment. Pediatr Surg Int 33, 145–148 (2017).

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  • Thermoregulation
  • Pediatric surgery
  • Conductive heat exchange
  • Liquid cooling/warming garment
  • Temperature
  • Neonates
  • Anesthesia