The effect of glutamine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition on nutrition and intestinal absorptive function in a rat model

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of short-term (7 days) glycyl-glutamine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on nutrition and intestinal absorptive function in a rat model. Thirty Wistar rats, weighting 140–180 g, were divided into three groups (n=10) randomly. The animals received isonitrogenous and isocaloric TPN solutions for 7 days. The nitrogen was supplied by glycyl-glutamine dipeptide-supplemented amino acid solution (group G), and two standard amino acid solutions (group V, group N), respectively. Body weight, plasma glutamine level, nitrogen balance, total tissue water and intestinal absorptive function, assessed by (15-N)-glycine absorption, were investigated. Body weight decreased in three groups at the end of TPN; there was no significant difference in relative body-weight changes. There was a significant improvement of cumulative nitrogen balance and nitrogen retention in group G compared to other groups (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in intestinal glycine absorption (P>0.05) among the three groups. Total tissue water of left thigh muscle was significantly higher in group V and group N than that in group G (P<0.05). The results indicated that short-term (7 days) TPN supplemented with glycyl-glutamine improved plasma glutamine level and nitrogen balance, decreased water content of muscle, but had no beneficial effect on absorptive function in a rat model.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  1. 1.

    Andrews FJ, Griffiths RD (2002) Glutamine: essential for immune nutrition in the critically ill. Br J Nutr 87:S3–S8

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Babst R, Horig H, Stehle P, Brand O, Filgueira L, Marti W, Fischer M, Oberholzer M, Gudat F, Furst P (1993) Glutamine peptide-supplemented long-term total parenteral nutrition: effect on intracellular and extracellular amino acid patterns, nitrogen economy, and tissue morphology in growing rats. JPEN J Parenteral Enter Nutr 17:566–574

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Becker RM, Wu G, Galanko JA, Chen W, Maynor AR, Bose CL, Rhoads JM (2000) Reduced serum amino acid concentrations in infants with necrotizing enterocolitis. J Pediatr 137:785–793

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Biolo G, Zorat F, Antonione R, Ciocchi B (2005) Muscle glutamine depletion in the intensive care unit. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 37:2169–2179

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Byrne TA, Wilmore DW, Iyer K, Dibaise J, Clancy K, Robinson MK, Chang P, Gertner JM, Lautz D (2005) Growth hormone, glutamine, and an optimal diet reduces parenteral nutrition in patients with short bowel syndrome: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Ann Surg 242:655–661

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    D’Souza R, Powell-Tuck J (2004) Glutamine supplements in the critically ill. J R Soc Med 97:425–427

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    De-Souza DA, Greene LJ (2005) Intestinal permeability and systemic infections in critically ill patients: effect of glutamine. Crit Care Med 33:1125–1135

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Dilsiz A, Ciftci I, Aktan TM, Gurbilek M, Karagozoglu E (2003) Enteral glutamine supplementation and dexamethasone attenuate the local intestinal damage in rats with experimental necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatr Surg Int 19:578–582

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Garcia-de-Lorenzo A, Zarazaga A, Garcia-Luna PP, Gonzalez-Huix F, Lopez-Martinez J, Mijan A, Quecedo L, Casimiro C, Usan L, del Llano J (2003) Clinical evidence for enteral nutritional support with glutamine: a systematic review. Nutrition 19:805–811

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Goeters C, Wenn A, Mertes N, Wempe C, Van Aken H, Stehle P, Bone HG (2002) Parenteral L-alanyl-L-glutamine improves 6-month outcome in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 30:2032–2037

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Griffiths RD, Jones C, Palmer TE (1997) Six-month outcome of critically ill patients given glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition. Nutrition 13:295–302

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    House JD, Pencharz PB, Ball RO (1994) Glutamine supplementation to total parenteral nutrition promotes extracellular expansion in piglet. J Nutr 124:396–405

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Lacey JM, Crouch JB, Benfell K, Ringer SA, Wilmore CK, Maguire D, Wilmore DW (1997) The effects of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in premature infants. JPEN J Parenteral Enter Nutr 20:74–80

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Lang CA (1958) Simple microdetermination of Kjeldahl nitrogen in biological materials. Anal Chem 30:1692–1694

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Li YS, Li JS, Jiang JW, Liu FN, Li N, Qin WS, Zhu H (1999) Glycyl-glutamine-enriched long-term total parenteral nutrition attenuates bacterial translocation following small bowel transplantation in the pig. J Surg Res 82:106–111

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Li Y, Li J, Jiang J, Li N, Wang X, Wang Z, Wu B, Liu F (2003) Glycyl-glutamine-supplemented long-term total parenteral nutrition selectively improves structure and function in heterotopic small-bowel autotransplantation in the pig. Transpl Int 16:866–871

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Liu F, Li J, Cheng Y, Li Y (1997) Plasma glutamine level monitor with high performance liquid chromatography for patients infusing glutamine after small bowel transplantation. China J Chromatogr 15:445–447

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Matthews DE, Motil KJ, Rohrbaugh DK, Burke JF, Young VR, Bier DM (1980) Measurement of leucine metabolism in man from a primed, continuous infusion of L-[1-3C)leucine. Am J Physiol 238:473–479

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Melis GC, ter Wengel N, Boelens PG, van Leeuwen PA (2004) Glutamine recent developments in research on the clinical significance of glutamine. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 7:59–70

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Neu J (2003) Glutamine supplements in premature infants: why and how. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 37:533–535

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Novak F, Heyland DK, Avenell A, Drover JW, Su X (2002) Glutamine supplementation in serious illness: a systematic review of the evidence. Crit Care Med 30:2002–2009

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Petersson B, von der Decken A, Vinnars E, Wernerman J (1994) Long-term effects of postoperative total parenteral nutrition supplemented with glycylglutamine on subjective fatigue and muscle protein synthesis. Br J Surg 81:1520–1523

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Pierro A (2002) Metabolism and nutritional support in the surgical neonate. J Pediatr Surg 37:811–822

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Poindexter BB, Ehrenkranz RA, Stoll BJ, Koch MA, Wright LL, Oh W, Papile LA, Bauer CR, Carlo WA, Donovan EF, Fanaroff AA, Korones SB, Laptook AR, Shankaran S, Stevenson DK, Tyson JE, Lemons JA, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network (2004) Parenteral glutamine supplementation does not reduce the risk for mortality or late-onset sepsis in extremely low birth weight infants. Pediatrics 113:1209–1215

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Scheltinga MR, Young LS, Benfell K, Bye RL, Ziegler TR, Santos AA, Antin JH, Schloerb PR, Wilmore DW (1991) Glutamine-enriched intravenous feedings attenuate extracellular fluid expansion after a standard stress. Ann Surg 214:393–395

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Thompson SW, McClure BG, Tubman TR (2003) A randomized, controlled trial of parenteral glutamine in ill, very low birth-weight neonates. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 37:550–553

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Tubman TR, Thompson SW, McGuire W (2005) Glutamine supplementation to prevent morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 25:CD001457

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Vaughn P, Thomas P, Clark R, Neu J (2003) Enteral glutamine supplementation and morbidity in low birth weigh infants. J Pediatr 142:662–668

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Wischmeyer PE (2003) Clinical applications of L-glutamine: past, present, and future. Nutr Clin Pract 18(5):377–385

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgement

This study was supported by a grant from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30271263).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yousheng Li.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Li, Y., Xu, B., Liu, F. et al. The effect of glutamine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition on nutrition and intestinal absorptive function in a rat model. Ped Surgery Int 22, 508–513 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00383-006-1693-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Glutamine
  • Total parenteral nutrition
  • Intestinal absorption
  • Rat