Skip to main content

Distinct influences of cold vortex over Northeast China on local precipitation in early summer and midsummer

Abstract

The station observations and reanalysis dataset are utilized to identify the cold vertex over Northeast China (NECV) in early summer (ES) and midsummer (MS) respectively. In this study, we focus on the characteristics of NECV and their distinct influences on local precipitations in ES and MS. The underpinning mechanisms are further inspected in terms of thermodynamic and dynamic processes. Results suggest that in ES (MS) the NECV is mainly located over Northern China-Southeastern Russia (Mongolia) and significantly correlated to the precipitations over the eastern (mid-western) regions of Northeast China. In the strong cases of precipitation, NECV displays northward shift and intensification in ES and MS respectively. Meanwhile, the upper-level wind anomalies suggest a northward displacement of polar front jet and a weakened subtropical jet in ES, and an enhanced polar front jet and a southward shift of subtropical jet in MS. The wind anomalies induced by meridional temperature gradients and the Rossby wave activities transported to Northeast China favor the development of atmospheric circulation vorticity and then promote the variations of NECV. Furthermore, the vorticity and temperature advections are favorable for the enhancement of ascending motion under quasigeostrophic approximation, which is combined with the sufficient water vapor transported from oceanic regions, triggering the regional precipitation. Intriguingly, the pathways of water vapor transport and disturbance energy propagation caused by the diverse external forcings are different in ES and MS, which sheds some fresh light on the insight into the subseasonal variations of NECV and the distinctive contributions to local precipitation.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13

References

  • Arnason G (1963) The stability of nongeostrophic perturbations in a baroclinic zonal flow. Tellus 15:205–229

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chen TC, Wang SY, Huang WR, Yen MC (2004) Variation of the East Asian summer monsoon rainfall. J Clim 17(4):744–762

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chen SS, Knaff JA, Marks FD (2006) Effect of vertical wind shear and storm motion on tropical cyclone rainfall asymmetries deduced from TRMM. Mon Weather Rev 134:193–208

    Google Scholar 

  • Chen G, Huang R, Zhou L (2013) Baroclinic instability of the Silk Road pattern induced by thermal damping. J Atmos Sci 70(9):2875–2893

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cholaw B, Xie Z (2013) Northeastern China cold vortex circulation and its dynamical features. Adv Meteorol Sci Technol 3:34–39 ((in Chinese))

    Google Scholar 

  • Chowdary JS, Hu K, Srinivas G, Kosaka Y, Wang L, Rao KK (2019) The Eurasian jet streams as conduits for East Asian monsoon variability. Curr Clim Change Rep 5(3):233–244. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40641-019-00134-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Deser C, Trenberth K (2016) National Center for Atmospheric Research Staff (Eds). Last modified 06 Jan 2016, The Climate Data Guide: Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO): Definition and Indices

  • Ding QH, Wang B (2005) Circumglobal teleconnection in the northern hemisphere summer. J Clim 18:3483–3505

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ding T, Yuan Y, Zhang J, Gao H (2019) 2018 the hottest summer in China and possible causes. J Meteorol Res 33:577–592. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13351-019-8178-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Enomoto T, Hoskins B, Matsuda Y (2003) The formation mechanism of the Bonin high in August. Q J R Meteorol Soc 129:157–178. https://doi.org/10.1256/qj.01.211

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Enomoto T, Endo H, Harada Y, Ohfuchi W (2009) Relationship between high-impact weather events in Japan and propagation of Rossby waves along the Asian jet in July 2004. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 87:139–156. https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.87.139

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Foley GR, Hanstrum BN (1994) the capture of tropical cyclones by cold fronts off the west coast of Australia. Weather Forecast 9(4):577–592

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gu W, Wang L, Hu Z, Hu K, Li Y (2018) Interannual var- iations of the first rainy season precipitation over South China. J Clim 31:623–640. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0284.1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Han TT, Zhang MH, Zhu JW, Zhou BT, Li SF (2021) Impact of early spring sea ice in Barents Sea on midsummer rainfall distribution at Northeast China. Clim Dyn 57:1023–1037. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-021-05754-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • He JH, Wu ZW, Jiang ZH et al (2006) The climatic effects of northeast cold vortex and its impacts on Meiyu. Chin Sci Bull 51(23):2803–2809 ((in Chinese))

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hirota N, Takahashi M (2012) A tripolar pattern as an internal mode of the East Asian summer monsoon. Clim Dyn 39:2219–2238. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-012-1416-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hong X, Lu R (2016) The meridional displacement of the summer Asian jet, Silk Road pattern, and tropical SST anomalies. J Clim 29(10):3753–3766

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hong XW, Lu RY, Li SL (2021) Interannual relationship between the West Asian and East Asian jet meridional displacements in summer. J Clim 34:621–633. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0030.1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hoskins BJ, James IN, White GH (1983) The shape, propagation and mean-flow interaction of large-scale weather systems. J Atmos Sci 40:1595–1612

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hsieh YP (1949) An investigation of a selected cold vortex over North America. J Atmos Sci 6(6):401–410

    Google Scholar 

  • Hu KX, Lu RY, Wang DH (2010) Seasonal climatology of cut-off lows and associated precipitation patterns over Northeast China. Meteorol Atmos Phys 106(2):37–48

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hu KX, Lu RY, Wang DH (2011) Cold Vortex over Northeast China and its climate effect. Sci Atmos Sin 35(1):179–191

    Google Scholar 

  • Kalnay E, Kanamitsu M et al (1996) The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull Am Meteor Soc 77:437–472. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077%3c0437:TNYRP%3e2.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kang IS, Jin K, Wang B et al (2002) Intercomparison of the climatological variations of Asian summer monsoon precipitation simulated by 10 GCMs. Clim Dyn 19:383–395. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-002-0245-9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kosaka Y, Nakamura H (2006) Structure and dynamics of the summertime Pacific-Japan teleconnection pattern. Q J R Meteorol Soc 132:2009–2030. https://doi.org/10.1256/qj.05.204

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kosaka Y, Xie SP, Nakamura H (2011) Dynamics of interannual variability in summer precipitation over East Asia. J Clim 24:5435–5453. https://doi.org/10.1175/2011JCLI4099.1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lan M, Zhang Y (2011) Relationship between the East Asian subtropical westerly jet and summer rainfall anomaly in Northeast China. J Meteorol Sci 31:258–265

    Google Scholar 

  • Li Y, Chen LS, Lei XT (2006) Numerical study on impacts of upper-level westerly trough on the extratropical transition process of typhoon Winnie (1997). Acta Meteorol Sin 64:552–563

    Google Scholar 

  • Li X, Lu R, Greatbatch RJ, Li G, Hong X (2020) Maintenance mechanism for the teleconnection pattern over the high latitudes of the Eurasian continent in summer. J Clim 33(3):1017–1030

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li X, Lu R, Ahn JB (2021) Combined Effects of the British-Baikal Corridor Pattern and the Silk Road Pattern on Eurasian Surface Air Temperatures in Summer. J Clim 34(9):3707–3720

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lian Y, Cholaw B, Xie ZW, Shen B (2010) The anomalous Cold Vortex activity in Northeast China during the early summer and the low-frequency variability of the Northern Hemispheric atmosphere circulation. Chin J Atmos Sci 34:429–439 ((in Chinese))

    Google Scholar 

  • Lian Y, Shen B, Li S et al (2013) Impacts of polar vortex, NPO, and SST configurations on un- usually cool summers in Northeast China. Part I: analysis and diagnosis. Adv Atmos Sci 30:193–209

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lian Y, Zhao B, Shen B et al (2014) Numerical experiments on the impact of spring North Pacific SSTA on NPO and unusually cool summers in Northeast China. Adv Atmos Sci 31:1305–1315

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liang H, Wang Y, Guo ZQ (2009) The teleconnection relationship between the northeast cold vortex and the subtropical high, the Okhotsk high in summer. Sci Atmos Sin 29(6):793–796 ((in Chinese))

    Google Scholar 

  • Lin ZD, Lu RY (2008) Abrupt northward jump of the East Asian upper-tropospheric jet stream in mid-summer. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 86:857–866

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu ZX, Lian Y, Gao ZT, Sun L, Shen BZ (2002) Analyses of the Northern hemisphere circulation characters during Northeast Cold Vortex persistence. Chin J Atmos Sci 26:361–372

    Google Scholar 

  • Liu Y, Wang D, Zhang Z, Zhong S (2012) A comprehensive analysis of the structure of a northeast china-cold-vortex and its characteristics of evolution. Acta Meteorol Sin 70(3):354–370

    Google Scholar 

  • Liu G, Lian Y, Yan PC, Zeng YX, Yang X, Cao L (2015a) The objective recognition and classification of northeast cold vortex and the northern hemisphere atmospheric circulation characters in May to August. Sci Geogr Sin 35(8):1042–1050

    Google Scholar 

  • Liu G, Feng G, Qin Y, Cao L, Yao H, Liu Z (2015b) Activity of cold vortex in northeastern China and its connection with the characteristics of precipitation and circulation during 1960–2012. J Geog Sci 25(12):1423–1438 ((in Chinese))

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lu RY, Oh JH, Kim BJ (2002) A teleconnection pattern in upper-level meridional wind over the North Afican and Eurasian continent in summer. Tellus 54:44–55. https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v54i1.12122

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Palmen E (1955) Origin and structure of high-level cyclones south of the maximum westerlies. Tellus 1:22–31

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Petterssen S (2010) A general survey of factors influencing development at sea level. J Atmos Sci 12(1):36–42

    Google Scholar 

  • Rayner NA, Parker DE, Horton EB, Folland CK et al (2003) Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J Geophys Res Atmos 108(D14):4407. https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002670

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ren XJ, Yang XQ, Zhou TJ, Fang JB (2011) Diagnostic comparison of wintertime East Asian subtropical jet and polar-front jet: large-scale characteristics and transient eddy activities. Acta Meteorol Sin 25(1):21–33. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13351-011-0002-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shen B, Lin Z, Lu R, Lian Y (2011) Circulation anomalies associated with interannual variation of early- and late-summer precipitation in Northeast China. Sci China Earth Sci 54:1095–1104. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-011-4173-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shen B, Liu S, Lian Y et al (2012) The 2009 summer low temperature in Northeast China and its association with prophase changes of the air–sea system. Acta Meteorol Sin 26:438–453

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Song F, Zhou T, Wang L (2013) Two modes of the Silk Road pattern and their inter-annual variability simulated by LASG/IAP SAMIL2.0. Adv Atmos Sci 30(3):908–921. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-012-2145-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sun L, Zheng XY, Wang Q (1994) The climatological characteristics of northeast cold vortex in China. Q J Appl Meteorol 5(3):297–303 ((in Chinese))

    Google Scholar 

  • Sun L, An G, Lian Y et al (2000) A study of the persistent activity of northeast cold vortex in summer and its general circulation anomaly characteristics. Acta Meteorol Sin 58(6):704–714 ((in Chinese))

    Google Scholar 

  • Sun L, An G, Gao CT, Tang XL, Ding L, Shen B (2002) A composite diagnostic of heavy rain caused by the Northeast Cold Vortex over Songhuajiang-Nenjiang river basin in the summer of 1988. Q J Appl Meteorol 13:156–162

    Google Scholar 

  • Takaya K, Nakamura H (1997) A formulation of a wave-activity flux for stationary Rossby waves on a zonally varying basic flow. Geophys Res Lett 24(23):2985–2988

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Takaya K, Nakamura H (2001) A formulation of a phase-Independent wave-activity flux for stationary and migratory quasigeostrophic eddies on a zonally varying basic flow. J Atmos Sci 58(6):608–627

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tao SY (1998) Rainstorm of China. Science Press, Beijing ((in Chinese))

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang Y, Wang B, Oh J-H (2001) Impact of preceding El Niño on the East Asian summer atmosphere circulation. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 79:575–588

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang B, Lin H, Zhang Y, Lu M (2004) Definition of South China Sea monsoon onset and commencement of the East Asia summer monsoon. J Clim 17:699–710

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang DH, Zhong SX, Liu Y, Li J, Hu KX, Yang S (2007) Advances in the study of rainstorm in Northeast China. Adv Earth Sci 22:549–560

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang L, Xu P, Chen W, Liu Y (2017) Interdecadal variations of the Silk Road Pattern. J Clim 30(24):9915–9932. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0340.1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wu R, Wang B (2000) Multi-stage onset of the summer monsoon over the western North Pacific. Clim Dyn 17:277–289. https://doi.org/10.1007/s003820000118

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Xie ZW, Bueh C (2015) Different types of cold vortex circulations over Northeast China and their weather impacts. Mon Weather Rev 143:845–863

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Xu P, Wang L, Chen W, Feng J, Liu Y (2019) Structural changes in the Pacific-Japan pattern in the late 1990s. J Clim 32:607–621. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0123.1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Xu P, Wang L, Chen W, Chen G, Kang IS (2020) Intraseasonal variations of the British-Baikal Corridor pattern. J Clim 33(6):2183–2200. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0458.1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Xue D, Lu L, Sun J, Chen G, Zhang Y (2017) Local increase of anticyclonic wave activity over northern Eurasia under amplified Arctic warming. Geophys Res Lett 44(7):3299–3308

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Xue D, Lu J, Leung LR, Zhang Y (2018) Response of the hydrological cycle in Asian monsoon systems to global warming through the lens of water vapor wave activity analysis. Geophys Res Lett 45:11904–11912. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL078998

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yang HW, Feng GL, Shen BZ (2012) The quantitative research on cold vortex in summer over Northeast China. Chin J Atmos Sci 36(3):487–494 ((in Chinese))

    Google Scholar 

  • Yasui S, Watanabe M (2010) Forcing processes of the summertime circumglobal teleconnection pattern in a dry AGCM. J Clim 23(8):2093–2114

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yi L, Shen B, Li S et al (2016) Mechanisms for the formation of Northeast China cold vortex and its activities and impacts: an overview. J Meteor Res 30(6):881–896. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13351-016-6003-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhao GJ, Huang G, Wu RG, Tao WC, Gong HN, Qu X, Hu KM (2015) A new upper-level circulation index for the East Asian summer monsoon variability. J Clim 28:9977–9996. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0272.1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhu CW, Nakamura T, Li JP et al (2003) The 30–60 day intraseasonal oscillation over the western North Pacific Ocean and its impacts on summer flooding in China during 1980. Geophys Res Lett 30:1952. https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GL017817

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This study is jointly sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41930969), and Joint Open Fund of Key Project for Shenyang Institute of Atmospheric Environment of China Meteorological Administration and Key Open Laboratory of Research for Northeast Cold Vortex: Study on the Influence of Northeast Cold Vortex on Summer Rainfall in Northeast China (2020SYIAEZD5). In this study, the daily station records of temperature and precipitation are taken from the China Meteorological Data Center (http://data.cma.cn/en/?r=data/detail&dataCode=A.0012.0001). NCEP Reanalysis data is provided by the NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado, USA, from their website at https://psl.noaa.gov/data/gridded/data.ncep.reanalysis.html. The sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice concentration data are derived from the Met Office Hadley Center (https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/hadobs/hadisst/data/download.html).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yaocun Zhang.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Xue, D., Zhang, Y., Wang, P. et al. Distinct influences of cold vortex over Northeast China on local precipitation in early summer and midsummer. Clim Dyn (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-022-06291-4

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-022-06291-4

Keywords

  • Northeast cold vertex
  • Regional precipitation
  • Disturbance energy propagation
  • Water vapor transport
  • Vorticity and temperature advections