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Regional earth system modelling framework for CORDEX-SA: an integrated model assessment for Indian summer monsoon rainfall

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An effort is made to implement a regional earth system model (RESM); ROM, over CORDEX-South Asia (SA). The added value of RESM is assessed for mean precipitation, its variability (intraseasonal to interannual), extremes, and associated processes. In this regard, ROM’s fields are compared with the respective fields of its standalone version (REMO), the models belonging coupled model intercomparison project (CMIP5 and CMIP6), and regional climate models of CORDEX-CORE simulations. RESM shows substantial improvement for most of the Indian monsoon’s aspects; however, the magnitude of the value addition varies spatiotemporally and also with different aspects.. The improved representation of intraseasonal variability (active-break spell’s duration and intensity) and Interannual variability attributed to improved mean seasonal precipitation. Additionally, correct representation of sea surface temperature, Indian Ocean Dipole, and its underlying dynamics also contribute to improving the mean precipitation. The notable improvement is seen especially over the south-eastern regions of the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and South-Central India, where increasing (decreasing) low-pressure systems over Central India (BoB) are noticed as a consequence of air-sea coupling, leading to enhanced (reduced) precipitation over Central India (BoB), reducing dry (wet) bias found in REMO and the other models. Despite substantial improvements, RESM has a systematic wet bias in the mean precipitation associated with a warm bias over the western coast of the Arabian Sea. An overestimation of very high extreme precipitation due to the enhanced contribution of low-pressure systems indicates the model’s limitations, suggesting the need for further tuning of the RESM.

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The observational datasets used in this study are derived from public resources, and model data can be obtained with a request to the corresponding author.


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We thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions, which have helped us improve the overall quality of the paper. This work is jointly supported by the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Govt. of India, grant number DST/INT/RUS/RSF/P-33/G, and the Russian Science Foundation (Project No.: 19-47-02015). MSS and AK acknowledge DST for providing INSPIRE fellowship (IF160281 and IF170016). DS acknowledges the fellowship from University Grants Commission (UGC), GoI, JRF fellowship no. 3724/(OBC)(NET-NOV.2017). DVS was supported in the framework of the state assignment of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Russia (theme No. 0128-2021-0014). Thanks to Dr. Kevin Hodges, University of Reading, for supporting in LPS track simulation. The authors are thankful to the respective agencies of the IMD, ECMWF ERA-Interim, and HadISST data products for making these datasets available. Simulations were performed on the German Climate Computing Center (DKRZ) under the grant number ba1144. The authors declared that the manuscript contents are novel and neither published nor under consideration anywhere else. The authors also declared that they have no known financial interest.

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Correspondence to Pankaj Kumar.

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Kumar, P., Mishra, A.K., Dubey, A.K. et al. Regional earth system modelling framework for CORDEX-SA: an integrated model assessment for Indian summer monsoon rainfall. Clim Dyn 59, 2409–2428 (2022).

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