Skip to main content

The effects of historical ozone changes on Southern Ocean heat uptake and storage

Abstract

Atmospheric ozone concentrations have dramatically changed in the last five decades of past century. Herein we explore the effects of historical ozone changes that include stratospheric ozone depletion on Southern Ocean heat uptake and storage, by comparing CESM1 large ensemble simulations with fixed-ozone experiment. During 1958–2005, the ozone changes contribute to about 50% of poleward intensification of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds in historical simulations, which intensifies the Deacon Cell and residual meridional overturning circulation, thus contributing to heat redistribution in the Southern Ocean. Heat budget analysis shows that, in response to historical ozone changes, heat is taken up between 50 and 58 °S mainly through changes in sensible heat flux, shortwave radiation flux, and the flux due to seasonal sea ice formation and melt. A major part of the absorbed heat, however, is redistributed equatorward primarily through Eulerian mean ocean heat transport such that ocean heat storage peaks at lower latitudes, around 44 °S. The ozone-induced interior warming contributes to about 22% of the historical Southern Ocean warming over 1958–2005. Poleward of 62 °S where a subsurface temperature inversion occurs, shoaling isopycnals lead to warming and salinification in the upper ocean. To the north of 50 °S, the deep-reaching warming and freshening that correspond to the ocean heat storage maximum are primarily set by the deepening of isopycnals. The large-scale patterns of isopycnal shoaling (deepening) at high (middle) latitudes are consistent with the overlying negative (positive) wind stress curl anomalies related to the poleward intensification of westerly winds, suggesting that the wind changes play an important role in the Southern Ocean heat redistribution under the ozone forcing.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10

References

  1. Balmaseda MA, Mogensen K, Weaver AT (2013) Evaluation of the ECMWF ocean reanalysis system ORAS4. Quart J R Meteorol Soc 139:1132–1161

    Google Scholar 

  2. Banerjee A, Fyfe JC, Polvani LM, Waugh D, Chang KL (2020) A pause in Southern Hemisphere circulation trends due to the Montreal Protocol. Nature 579:544–548

    Google Scholar 

  3. Banks HT, Gregory JM (2006) Mechanisms of ocean heat uptake in a coupled climate model and the implications for tracer based predictions of ocean heat uptake. Geophys Res Lett 33(L07):608. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL025352

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Bindoff NL, McDougall TJ (1994) Diagnosing climate change and ocean ventilation using hydrographic data. J Phys Oceanogr 24:1137–1152

    Google Scholar 

  5. Bitz CM, Polvani LM (2012) Antarctic climate response to stratospheric ozone depletion in a fine resolution ocean climate model. Geophys Res Lett 39:L20705. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL053393

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Bitz CM, Gent PR, Woodgate RA, Holland MM, Lindsay R (2006) The influence of sea ice on ocean heat uptake in response to increasing CO2. J Clim 19:2437–2450

    Google Scholar 

  7. Böning CW, Dispert A, Visbeck M, Rintoul SR, Schwarzkopf FU (2008) The response of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to recent climate change. Nat Geosci 1:864–869

    Google Scholar 

  8. Bryan FO, Gent PR, Tomas R (2014) Can Southern Ocean eddy effects be parameterized in climate models? J Climate 27:411–425

    Google Scholar 

  9. Cai WJ, Cowan T, Godfrey S, Wijffels S (2010) Simulations of processes associated with the fast warming rate of the southern midlatitude ocean. J Clim 23:197–206

    Google Scholar 

  10. Chemke R, Polvani LM (2020) Using multiple large ensembles to elucidate the discrepancy between the 1979–2019 modeled and observed Antarctic sea ice trends. Geophys Res Lett 47:e2020GL088339

    Google Scholar 

  11. Chen C, Liu W, Wang G (2019a) Understanding the uncertainty in the 21st century dynamic sea level projections: the role of the AMOC. Geophys Res Lett 46:210–217

    Google Scholar 

  12. Chen H, Morrison AK, Dufour CO, Sarmiento JL (2019b) Deciphering patterns and drivers of heat and carbon storage in the Southern Ocean. Geophys Res Lett 46:3359–3367

    Google Scholar 

  13. Cheng L, Trenberth KE, Fasullo J, Boyer T, Abraham J, Zhu J (2017) Improved estimates of ocean heat content from 1960 to 2015. Sci Adv 3(e1601):545. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1601545

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Church JA, Godfrey JS, Jackett DR, McDougall TJ (1991) A model of sea level rise caused by ocean thermal expansion. J Clim 4:438–456

    Google Scholar 

  15. Clément L, McDonagh EL, Marzocchi A, Nurser AG (2020) Signature of ocean warming at the mixed layer base. Geophys Res Lett 47:e2019GL086269

    Google Scholar 

  16. Comiso JC, Nishio F (2008) Trends in the sea ice cover using enhanced and compatible AMSR-E, SSM/I, and SMMR data. J Geophys Res 113:C02S07

    Google Scholar 

  17. Dalan F, Stone PH, Sokolov AP (2005) Sensitivity of the ocean’s climate to diapycnal diffusivity in an EMIC. Part II: global warming scenario. J Clim 18:2482–2496

    Google Scholar 

  18. Desbruyères D, McDonagh EL, King BA, Thierry V (2017) Global and full-depth ocean temperature trends during the early twenty-first century from Argo and repeat hydrography. J Clim 30:1985–1997

    Google Scholar 

  19. Döös K, Webb DJ (1994) The Deacon cell and the other meridional cells of the Southern Ocean. J Phys Oceanogr 24:429–442

    Google Scholar 

  20. Durack PJ, Wijffels SE (2010) Fifty-year trends in global ocean salinities and their relationship to broad-scale warming. J Clim 23:4342–4362

    Google Scholar 

  21. Durack PJ, Gleckler PJ, Landerer FW, Taylor KE (2014) Quantifying underestimates of long-term upper-ocean warming. Nat Clim Change 4:999–1005

    Google Scholar 

  22. Exarchou E, Kuhlbrodt T, Gregory JM, Smith RS (2015) Ocean heat uptake processes: a model intercomparison. J Clim 28:887–908

    Google Scholar 

  23. Ferreira D, Marshall J, Bitz CM, Solomon S, Plumb A (2015) Antarctic ocean and sea ice response to ozone depletion: a two-time-scale problem. J Clim 28:1206–1226

    Google Scholar 

  24. Frölicher TL, Sarmiento JL, Paynter DJ, Dunne JP, Krasting JP, Winton M (2015) Dominance of the Southern Ocean in anthropogenic carbon and heat uptake in CMIP5 models. J Clim 28:862–886

    Google Scholar 

  25. Fyfe JC (2006) Southern Ocean warming due to human influence. Geophys Res Lett 33(L19):701. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL027247

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Fyfe JC, Saenko OA, Zickfeld K, Eby M, Weaver AJ (2007) The role of poleward-intensifying winds on Southern Ocean warming. J Clim 20:5391–5400

    Google Scholar 

  27. Gao L, Rintoul SR, Yu W (2018) Recent wind-driven change in Subantarctic Mode Water and its impact on ocean heat storage. Nat Clim Change 8:58–63

    Google Scholar 

  28. Garuba OA, Klinger BA (2016) Ocean heat uptake and interbasin transport of the passive and redistributive components of surface heating. J Clim 29:7507–7527

    Google Scholar 

  29. Gent PR, Danabasoglu G (2011) Response to increasing Southern Hemisphere winds in CCSM4. J Clim 24:4992–4998

    Google Scholar 

  30. Gent PR, Mcwilliams JC (1990) Isopycnal mixing in ocean circulation models. J Phys Oceanogr 20:150–155

    Google Scholar 

  31. Gille ST (2002) Warming of the Southern Ocean since the 1950s. Science 295:1275–1277

    Google Scholar 

  32. Gillett NP, Thompson DWJ (2003) Simulation of recent Southern Hemisphere climate change. Science 302:273–275

    Google Scholar 

  33. Good SA, Martin MJ, Rayner NA (2013) EN4: Quality controlled ocean temperature and salinity profiles and monthly objective analyses with uncertainty estimates. J Geophys Res Oceans 118:6704–6716

    Google Scholar 

  34. Gouretski V, Reseghetti F (2010) On depth and temperature biases in bathythermograph data: development of a new correction scheme based on analysis of a global ocean database. Deep Sea Res Part I 57:812–833

    Google Scholar 

  35. Gregory JM (2000) Vertical heat transports in the ocean and their effect on time-dependent climate change. Clim Dyn 16:501–515

    Google Scholar 

  36. Gregory JM, Church JA, Boer GJ, Dixon KW, Flato GM, Jackett DR, Lowe JA, O’farrell SP, Roeckner E, Russell GL, Stouffer RJ, Winton M (2001) Comparison of results from several AOGCMs for global and regional sea-level change 1900–2100. Clim Dyn 18:225–240

    Google Scholar 

  37. Gregory JM, Bouttes N, Griffies SM, Haak H, Hurlin WJ, Jungclaus J, Kelley M, Lee WG, Marshall J, Romanou A, Saenko OA, Stammer D, Winton M (2016) The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) contribution to CMIP6: investigation of sea-level and ocean climate change in response to CO2 forcing. Geosci Model Dev 9:3993–4017

    Google Scholar 

  38. Griffies SM, Winton M, Anderson WG, Benson R, Delworth TL, Dufour CO, Dunne JP, Goddard P, Morrison AK, Rosati A, Wittenberg AT, Yin J, Zhang R (2015) Impacts on ocean heat from transient mesoscale eddies in a hierarchy of climate models. J Clim 28:952–977

    Google Scholar 

  39. Grise KM, Polvani LM, Tselioudis G, Wu Y, Zelinka MD (2013) The ozone hole indirect effect: cloud-radiative anomalies accompanying the poleward shift of the eddy-driven jet in the Southern Hemisphere. Geophys Res Lett 40:3688–3692

    Google Scholar 

  40. Haigh JD (1994) The role of stratospheric ozone in modulating the solar radiative forcing of climate. Nature 370:544–546

    Google Scholar 

  41. Häkkinen S, Rhines PB, Worthen DL (2015) Heat content variability in the North Atlantic Ocean in ocean reanalyses. Geophys Res Lett 42:2901–2909

    Google Scholar 

  42. Han L, Yan XH (2018) Warming in the Agulhas region during the global surface warming acceleration and slowdown. Sci Rep 8(13):452

    Google Scholar 

  43. Hande LB, Siems ST, Manton MJ (2012) Observed trends in wind speed over the Southern Ocean. Geophys Res Lett 39(L11):802. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL051734

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. He C, Liu Z, Hu A (2019) The transient response of atmospheric and oceanic heat transports to anthropogenic warming. Nat Clim Chang 9:222–226

    Google Scholar 

  45. Hersbach H, Peubey C, Simmons A, Berrisford P, Poli P, Dee D (2015) ERA-20CM: a twentieth-century atmospheric model ensemble. Quart J R Meteorol Soc 141:2350–2375

    Google Scholar 

  46. Hieronymus M, Nycander J (2013) The budgets of heat and salinity in NEMO. Ocean Modell 67:28–38

    Google Scholar 

  47. Holland MM, Bailey DA, Briegleb BP, Light B, Hunke E (2012) Improved sea ice shortwave radiation physics in CCSM4: the impact of melt ponds and aerosols on Arctic sea ice. J Clim 25:1413–1430

    Google Scholar 

  48. Hurrell JW et al (2013) The Community Earth System Model: a framework for collaborative research. B Am Meteorol Soc 94:1339–1360

    Google Scholar 

  49. Jackett DR, McDougall TJ (1997) A neutral density variable for the world’s oceans. J Phys Oceanogr 27:237–263

    Google Scholar 

  50. Kalnay E, Kanamitsu M, Kistler R, Collins W, Deaven D, Gandin L, Iredell M, Saha S, White G, Woollen J, Zhu Y (1996) The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull Am Meteor Soc 77:437–472

    Google Scholar 

  51. Kay JE, Deser C, Phillips A, Mai A, Hannay C, Strand G, Arblaster JM, Bates SC, Danabasoglu G, Edwards J, Holland M, Kushner P, Lamarque JF, Lawrence D, Lindsay K, Middleton A, Munoz E, Neale R, Oleson K, Polvani L, Vertenstein M (2015) The Community Earth System Model (CESM) large ensemble project: a community resource for studying climate change in the presence of internal climate variability. Bull Am Meteor Soc 96:1333–1349

    Google Scholar 

  52. Kobayashi S, Ota Y, Harada Y, Ebita A, Moriya M, Onoda H, Onogi K, Kamahori H, Kobayashi C, Endo H, Miyaoka K (2015) The JRA-55 reanalysis: general specifications and basic characteristics. J Meteor Soc Jpn 93:5–48

    Google Scholar 

  53. Köhl A (2014) Detecting processes contributing to interannual halosteric and thermosteric sea level variability. J Clim 27:2417–2426

    Google Scholar 

  54. Köhl A (2020) Evaluating the GECCO3 1948–2018 ocean synthesis–a configuration for initializing the MPI-ESM climate model. Quart J R Meteorol Soc 146:2250–2273

    Google Scholar 

  55. Kuhlbrodt T, Gregory JM (2012) Ocean heat uptake and its consequences for the magnitude of sea level rise and climate change. Geophys Res Lett 39(L18):608. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL052952

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Landrum LL, Holland MM, Raphael MN, Polvani LM (2017) Stratospheric ozone depletion: an unlikely driver of the regional trends in Antarctic sea ice in austral fall in the late twentieth century. Geophys Res Lett 44:11062–11070

    Google Scholar 

  57. Large WG, McWilliams JC, Doney SC (1994) Oceanic vertical mixing: a review and a model with a nonlocal boundary layer parameterization. Rev Geophys 32:363–403

    Google Scholar 

  58. Lawrence DM, Oleson KW, Flanner MG, Fletcher CG, Lawrence PJ, Levis S, Swenson SC, Bonan GB (2012) The CCSM4 land simulation, 1850–2005: assessment of surface climate and new capabilities. J Clim 25:2240–2260

    Google Scholar 

  59. Levitus S, Antonov JI, Boyer TP, Baranova OK, Garcia HE, Locarnini RA, Mishonov AV, Reagan JR, Seidov D, Yarosh ES, Zweng MM (2012) World ocean heat content and thermosteric sea level change (0–2000 m), 1955–2010. Geophys Res Lett 39(L10):603. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL051106

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Li X, Holland DM, Gerber EP, Yoo C (2014) Impacts of the north and tropical Atlantic Ocean on the Antarctic Peninsula and sea ice. Nature 505:538–542

    Google Scholar 

  61. Liu W, Fedorov AV (2019) Global impacts of Arctic sea ice loss mediated by the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Geophys Res Lett 46:944–952

    Google Scholar 

  62. Liu W, Xie SP, Lu J (2016) Tracking ocean heat uptake during the surface warming hiatus. Nat Commun 7(10):926

    Google Scholar 

  63. Liu W, Lu J, Xie SP, Fedorov A (2018) Southern Ocean heat uptake, redistribution, and storage in a warming climate: the role of meridional overturning circulation. J Clim 31:4727–4743

    Google Scholar 

  64. Llovel W, Terray L (2016) Observed southern upper-ocean warming over 2005–2014 and associated mechanisms. Environ Res Lett 11(124):023. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/11/12/124023

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Lyu K, Zhang X, Church JA, Wu Q (2020) Processes responsible for the Southern Hemisphere ocean heat uptake and redistribution under anthropogenic warming. J Clim 33:3787–3807

    Google Scholar 

  66. Ma X, Liu W, Allen RJ, Huang G, Li X (2020) Dependence of regional ocean heat uptake on anthropogenic warming scenarios. Sci Adv 6:eabc0303

    Google Scholar 

  67. Manabe S, Stouffer RJ, Spelman MJ, Bryan K (1991) Transient responses of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model to gradual changes of atmospheric CO2. Part I. Annual Mean Response J Clim 4:785–818

    Google Scholar 

  68. Marshall GJ (2003) Trends in the Southern Annular Mode from observations and reanalyses. J Clim 16:4134–4143

    Google Scholar 

  69. Marshall J, Radko T (2003) Residual-mean solutions for the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and its associated overturning circulation. J Phys Oceanogr 33:2341–2354

    Google Scholar 

  70. Marshall J, Armour KC, Scott JR, Kostov Y, Hausmann U, Ferreira D, Shepherd TG, Bitz CM (2014) The ocean’s role in polar climate change: asymmetric Arctic and Antarctic responses to greenhouse gas and ozone forcing. Philos Trans R Soc A 372(20130):040

    Google Scholar 

  71. Marshall J, Scott JR, Armour KC, Campin JM, Kelley M, Romanou A (2015) The ocean’s role in the transient response of climate to abrupt greenhouse gas forcing. Clim Dyn 44:2287–2299

    Google Scholar 

  72. Meehl GA, Arblaster JM, Bitz CM, Chung CTY, Tang H (2016) Antarctic sea-ice expansion between 2000 and 2014 driven by tropical Pacific decadal climate variability. Nat Geosci 9:590–595

    Google Scholar 

  73. Meehl GA, Arblaster JM, Chung CTY, Holland MM, DuVivier A, Thompson L, Yang D, Bitz CM (2019) Sustained ocean changes contributed to sudden Antarctic sea ice retreat in late 2016. Nat Commun 10:14

    Google Scholar 

  74. Morrison AK, Saenko OA, Hogg AM, Spence P (2013) The role of vertical eddy flux in Southern Ocean heat uptake. Geophys Res Lett 40:5445–5450

    Google Scholar 

  75. Morrison AK, Griffies SM, Winton M, Anderson WG, Sarmiento JL (2016) Mechanisms of Southern Ocean heat uptake and transport in a global eddying climate model. J Clim 29:2059–2075

    Google Scholar 

  76. Neale RB et al (2012) Description of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 5.0). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-486, NCAR, 264 pp

  77. Polvani LM, Waugh DW, Correa GJ, Son SW (2011) Stratospheric ozone depletion: the main driver of twentieth-century atmospheric circulation changes in the Southern Hemisphere. J Clim 24:795–812

    Google Scholar 

  78. Previdi M, Polvani LM (2014) Climate system response to stratospheric ozone depletion and recovery. Quart J R Meteorol Soc 140:2401–2419

    Google Scholar 

  79. Purich A, England MH (2019) Tropical teleconnections to Antarctic sea ice during austral spring 2016 in coupled pacemaker experiments. Geophys Res Lett 46:6848–6858

    Google Scholar 

  80. Purkey SG, Johnson GC (2010) Warming of global abyssal and deep Southern Ocean waters between the 1990s and 2000s: contributions to global heat and sea level rise budgets. J Clim 23:6336–6351

    Google Scholar 

  81. Ramaswamy V, Chanin ML, Angell J, Barnett J, Gaffen D, Gelman M, Keckhut P, Koshelkov Y, Labitzke K, Lin JJ, O’Neill A, Nash J, Randel W, Rood R, Shine K, Shiotani M, Swinbank R (2001) Stratospheric temperature trends: observations and model simulations. Rev Geophys 39:71–122

    Google Scholar 

  82. Rhein M et al (2013) Observations: ocean. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner GK, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Inter-governmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 255–316

    Google Scholar 

  83. Roach LA, Dörr J, Holmes CR, Massonnet F, Blockley EW, Notz D et al (2020) Antarctic sea ice area in CMIP6. Geophys Res Lett 47:e2019GL086729

    Google Scholar 

  84. Roemmich D, Church J, Gilson J, Monselesan D, Sutton P, Wijffels S (2015) Unabated planetary warming and its ocean structure since 2006. Nat Clim Chang 5:240–245

    Google Scholar 

  85. Rose BE, Armour KC, Battisti DS, Feldl N, Koll DD (2014) The dependence of transient climate sensitivity and radiative feedbacks on the spatial pattern of ocean heat uptake. Geophys Res Lett 41:1071–1078

    Google Scholar 

  86. Rosenblum E, Eisenman I (2017) Sea ice trends in Climate Models only accurate in runs with biased global warming. J Clim 30:6265–6278

    Google Scholar 

  87. Sallée JB (2018) Southern Ocean warming. Oceanography 31:52–62

    Google Scholar 

  88. Sallée JB, Shuckburgh E, Bruneau N, Meijers AJ, Bracegirdle TJ, Wang Z, Roy T (2013) Assessment of Southern Ocean water mass circulation and characteristics in CMIP5 models: historical bias and forcing response. J Geophys Res 118:1830–1844

    Google Scholar 

  89. Schneider DP, Deser C (2018) Tropically driven and externally forced patterns of Antarctic sea ice change: reconciling observed and modeled trends. Clim Dyn 50:4599–4618

    Google Scholar 

  90. Sen Gupta A, England MH (2006) Coupled ocean–atmosphere–ice response to variations in the southern annular mode. J Clim 19:4457–4486

    Google Scholar 

  91. Sen Gupta A, Santoso A, Taschetto AS, Ummenhofer CC, Trevena J, England MH (2009) Projected changes to the Southern Hemisphere ocean and sea ice in the IPCC AR4 climate models. J Clim 22:3047–3078

    Google Scholar 

  92. Seviour WJ, Waugh DW, Polvani LM, Correa GJ, Garfinkel CI (2017) Robustness of the simulated tropospheric response to ozone depletion. J Clim 30:2577–2585

    Google Scholar 

  93. Shi JR, Xie SP, Talley LD (2018) Evolving relative importance of the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic in anthropogenic ocean heat uptake. J Clim 31:7459–7479

    Google Scholar 

  94. Shi JR, Talley LD, Xie SP, Liu W, Gille ST (2020) Effects of buoyancy and wind forcing on Southern Ocean climate change. J Clim 33:10003–10020

    Google Scholar 

  95. Sigmond M, Fyfe JC (2010) Has the ozone hole contributed to increased Antarctic sea ice extent? Geophys Res Lett 37(L18):502. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL044301

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Sigmond M, Fyfe JC (2013) The Antarctic sea ice response to the ozone hole in climate models. J Clim 27:1336–1342

    Google Scholar 

  97. Sigmond M, Reader MC, Fyfe JC, Gillett NP (2011) Drivers of past and future Southern Ocean change: stratospheric ozone versus greenhouse gas impacts. Geophys Res Lett 38(L12):601

    Google Scholar 

  98. Smith RD, Jones P, Briegleb B, Bryan F, Danabasoglu G, Dennis J, Dukowicz J, Eden C, Fox-Kemper B, Gent P, Hecht M, Jayne S, Jochum M, Large W, Lindsay K, Maltrud M, Norton N, Peacock S, Vertenstein M, Yeager S (2010) The Parallel Ocean Program (POP) reference manual. Los Alamos National Laboratory Tech. Rep. LAUR-10–01853, LANL, 140 pp

  99. Smith KL, Polvani LM, Marsh DR (2012) Mitigation of 21st century Antarctic sea ice loss by stratospheric ozone recovery. Geophys Res Lett 39(L20):701. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL053325

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Solomon A, Polvani LM, Smith KL, Abernathey RP (2015) The impact of ozone depleting substances on the circulation, temperature, and salinity of the Southern Ocean: an attribution study with CESM1(WACCM). Geophys Res Lett 42:5547–5555

    Google Scholar 

  101. Son SW et al (2010) Impact of stratospheric ozone on Southern Hemisphere circulation change: a multimodel assessment. J Geophys Res 115:D00M07

    Google Scholar 

  102. Son SW et al (2018) Tropospheric jet response to Antarctic ozone depletion: an update with Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) models. Environ Res Lett 13:054024

    Google Scholar 

  103. Stammerjohn SE, Drinkwater MR, Smith RC, Liu X (2003) Ice-atmosphere interactions during sea-ice advance and retreat in the western Antarctic Peninsula region. J Geophys Res 108:3329

    Google Scholar 

  104. Stuecker MF, Bitz CM, Armour KC (2017) Conditions leading to the unprecedented low Antarctic sea ice extent during the 2016 austral spring season. Geophys Res Lett 44:9008–9019

    Google Scholar 

  105. Swart NC, Fyfe JC (2012) Observed and simulated changes in the Southern Hemisphere surface westerly wind-stress. Geophys Res Lett 39(L16):711. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL052810

    Article  Google Scholar 

  106. Swart NC, Gille ST, Fyfe JC, Gillett NP (2018) Recent Southern Ocean warming and freshening driven by greenhouse gas emissions and ozone depletion. Nat Geosci 11:836–841

    Google Scholar 

  107. Thompson DWJ, Solomon S (2002) Interpretation of recent Southern Hemisphere climate change. Science 296:895–899

    Google Scholar 

  108. Turner J, Hosking JS, Bracegirdle TJ, Marshall GJ, Phillips T (2015) Recent changes in Antarctic sea ice. Philos Trans R Soc 373:20140163

    Google Scholar 

  109. Turner J, Phillips T, Marshall GJ, Hosking JS, Pope JO, Bracegirdle TJ, Deb P (2017) Unprecedented springtime retreat of Antarctic sea ice in 2016. Geophys Res Lett 44:6868–6875

    Google Scholar 

  110. Wang L, Lyu K, Zhuang W, Zhang W, Makarim S, Yan XH (2021) Recent shift in the warming of the Southern Oceans Modulated by decadal climate variability. Geophys Res Lett 48:e2020GL090889

    Google Scholar 

  111. Waugh DW, Primeau F, DeVries T, Holzer M (2013) Recent changes in the ventilation of the southern oceans. Science 339:568–570

    Google Scholar 

  112. Waugh DW, Hogg AM, Spence P, England MH, Haine TW (2019) Response of Southern Ocean ventilation to changes in midlatitude westerly winds. J Clim 32:5345–5361

    Google Scholar 

  113. Winton M, Takahashi K, Held IM (2010) Importance of ocean heat uptake efficacy to transient climate change. J Clim 23:2333–2344

    Google Scholar 

  114. Winton M, Griffies SM, Samuels BL, Sarmiento JL, Frölicher TL (2013) Connecting changing ocean circulation with changing climate. J Clim 26:2268–2278

    Google Scholar 

  115. Xie P, Vallis GK (2012) The passive and active nature of ocean heat uptake in idealized climate change experiments. Clim Dyn 38:667–684

    Google Scholar 

  116. Yeung LY, Murray LT, Martinerie P, Witrant E, Hu H, Banerjee A, Orsi A, Chappellaz J (2019) Isotopic constraint on the twentieth-century increase in tropospheric ozone. Nature 570:224–227

    Google Scholar 

  117. Zanna L, Khatiwala S, Gregory JM, Ison J, Heimbach P (2019) Global reconstruction of historical ocean heat storage and transport. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 116:1126–1131

    Google Scholar 

  118. Zhang L, Cooke W (2020) Simulated changes of the Southern Ocean air-sea heat flux feedback in a warmer climate. Clim Dyn 22:1–6

    Google Scholar 

  119. Zhang W, Yan XH (2017) The subpolar North Atlantic ocean heat content variability and its decomposition. Sci Rep 7(13):748

    Google Scholar 

  120. Zhang Y, Cooper OR, Gaudel A, Thompson AM, Nédélec P, Ogino SY, West JJ (2016) Tropospheric ozone change from 1980 to 2010 dominated by equatorward redistribution of emissions. Nat Geosci 9:875–879

    Google Scholar 

  121. Zhang L, Delworth TL, Cooke W, Yang X (2019) Natural variability of Southern Ocean convection as a driver of observed climate trends. Nat Clim Chang 9:59–65

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by grants to WL by the Regents’ Faculty Fellowship, and by the Sloan Research Fellowship. KL and XZ were funded by the Centre for Southern Hemisphere Oceans Research (CSHOR), jointly funded by the Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (QNLM, China) and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO, Australia). The CESM1 Large Ensemble and CESM1 Fixed Ozone Ensemble data are available at Climate Date Gateway at NCAR on the page https://www.earthsystemgrid.org/. The ERA-20CM reanalysis is available at https://www.ecmwf.int/en/forecasts/datasets/browse-reanalysis-datasets. The JRA-55 reanalysis is available at https://jra.kishou.go.jp/JRA-55/index_en.html. The NCEP/NCAR-R1 reanalysis is available at https://psl.noaa.gov/data/gridded/data.ncep.reanalysis.html. The EN4.2.1 data are available at http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/hadobs/en4/index.html. The IAP data are available at http://159.226.119.60/cheng/. The GECCO3 data are available at http://icdc.cen.uni-hamburg.de/en/gecco3.html. The ORAS4 data are available at https://icdc.cen.uni-hamburg.de/daten/reanalysis-ocean/easy-init-ocean/ecmwf-ocean-reanalysis-system-4-oras4.html.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shouwei Li.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (DOCX 3955 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Li, S., Liu, W., Lyu, K. et al. The effects of historical ozone changes on Southern Ocean heat uptake and storage. Clim Dyn 57, 2269–2285 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-021-05803-y

Download citation