Skip to main content

Response of ocean surface waves to the co‐occurrence of Boreal Summer Intra-Seasonal Oscillation and El Niño Southern Oscillation

Abstract

Studies related to the combined effect of different atmospheric oscillations on the ocean surface waves are limited. The present study focuses on the change in wave climatology due to the combined effect of Boreal Summer Intra-Seasonal Oscillation (BSISO) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) using 40 years of reanalysis data on the Asian Summer Monsoon Region (ASMR). Composite analysis of surface wind, significant wave height, wind-sea, swell and mean wave period are analysed corresponding to different ENSO–BSISO phase combinations. The study showed noteworthy differences in wave parameters when ENSO–BSISO phases are analysed together. In El Niño–BSISO combined phase, enhancement of north-easterly wind causes the advancement in the reversal of wind direction (north-easterly to monsoon enhanced south-westerly) and disrupted propagation of positive wind and wave anomalies. Conversely, during La Niña–BSISO co-occurrence, south-westerlies are enhanced and as a result, the negative north-easterly anomalies are disrupted. In all the ENSO–BSISO combined phases, maximum wave height variability occurs at the South China Sea owing to the combined action of the north Indian Ocean (NIO) and Western North Pacific (WNP) surface wind forcing. High fluctuations in Tm over the NIO and WNP are observed during different ENSO–BSISO phase combinations. The phase relationship of Hs with Tm and the significant height of wind-sea (Hsw) and swell (Hss) are assessed to understand the propagation of swells. Due to the effect of multiple atmospheric perturbations, significant changes in Hs occur over the coastal regions of the NIO.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  1. Aboobacker VM, Rashmi R, Vethamony P, Menon HB (2011) On the dominance of pre-existing swells over wind seas along the west coast of India. Cont Shelf Res 31:1701–1712. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2011.07.010

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Aboobacker VM, Shanas PR, Al-Ansari EMAS et al (2020) The maxima in northerly wind speeds and wave heights over the Arabian Sea, the Arabian/Persian Gulf and the Red Sea derived from 40 years of ERA5 data. Clim Dyn. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-020-05518-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Amrutha MM, Sanil Kumar V (2017) Characteristics of high monsoon wind-waves observed at multiple stations in the eastern Arabian Sea. Ocean Sci Discuss. https://doi.org/10.5194/os-2017-84

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Amrutha MM, Sanil Kumar V, Sharma S et al (2015) Characteristics of shallow water waves off the central west coast of India before, during and after the onset of the Indian summer monsoon. Ocean Eng 107:259–270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2015.07.061

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Amrutha MM, Kumar VS, George J (2017) Observations of long-period waves in the nearshore waters of central west coast of India during the fall inter-monsoon period. Ocean Eng 131:244–262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2017.01.014

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Amrutha MM, Sanil Kumar V, Bhaskaran H, Naseef TM (2019) Consistency of wave power at a location in the coastal waters of central eastern Arabian Sea. Ocean Dyn 69:543–560. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-019-01267-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Anoop TR, Kumar VS, Shanas PR, Johnson G (2015) Surface wave climatology and its variability in the north Indian Ocean based on ERA-interim reanalysis. J Atmos Ocean Technol 32:1372–1385. https://doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-14-00212.1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Chen X, Li C, Li X (2020) Influences of ENSO on boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation over the western Pacific in decaying summer. Clim Dyn 54:3461–3473. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-020-05183-9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Chu PC, Qi Y, Chen Y et al (2004) South China Sea wind-wave characteristics. Part 1: validation of wavematch-III using TOPEX/Poseidon data. J Atmos Ocean Technol 21(11):1718–1733. https://doi.org/10.1175/JTECH1661.1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Duchon CE (1979) Lanczos filtering in one and two dimensions. J Appl Meteorol 18(8):1016–1022. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1979)018<1016:LFIOAT>2.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Findlater J (1969) A major low-level air current near the Indian Ocean during the northern summer. Quart J Royal Meteorologic Soc 95(404):362–380. https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49709540409

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Glejin J, Kumar VS, Nair TMB (2013) Monsoon and cyclone induced wave climate over the near shore waters off Puduchery, south western Bay of Bengal. Ocean Eng 72:277–286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2013.07.013

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Godoi VA, de Andrade FM, Bryan KR, Gorman RM (2019) Regional-scale ocean wave variability associated with El Niño–Southern Oscillation–Madden–Julian Oscillation combined activity. 39,483– 494. Int J Climatol. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.5823

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Godoi VA, de Andrade FM, Durrant TH, Torres Júnior AR (2020) What happens to the ocean surface gravity waves when ENSO and MJO phases combine during the extended boreal. winter? Clim Dyn 54:1407–1424. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-019-05065-9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Grimm AM, Ambrizzi T (2009) Teleconnections into South America from the tropics and extratropics on interannual and intraseasonal timescales. In: Vimeux F, Sylvestre F, Khodri M. (eds) Past climate variability in South America and surrounding regions. Developments in Paleoenvironmental Research, vol 14. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2672-9_7

  16. Han S, Fan Y, Dong Y et al (2017) A study on the relationships between the wave height and the El Niño in the north area of the South China Sea. Acta Oceanol Sin 36:44–50. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13131-017-1059-2

  17. Hersbach H, Bell B, Berrisford P et al (2020) The ERA5 global reanalysis. Q J R Meteorol Soc. 146:1999–2049. https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.3803

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Hsu P, LeeJ,Ha K, Tsou C (2017) Influences of Boreal Summer Intraseasonal Oscillation on Heat Waves in Monsoon Asia. J Clim 30(18):7191–7211. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0505.1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Jiang H, Chen G (2013) A global view on the swell and wind sea climate by the Jason-1 mission: a revisit. J Atmos Ocean Technol 30(8):1833–1841. https://doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-12-00180.1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Jiang X, Li T, Wang B (2004) Structures and mechanisms of the northward propagating boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation. J Clim 17(5):1022–1039. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<1022:SAMOTN>2.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Kikuchi K, Wang B, Kajikawa Y (2012) Bimodal representation of the tropical intraseasonal oscillation. Clim Dyn 38:1989–2000. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-011-1159-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Klein SA, Soden BJ, Lau NC (1999) Remote sea surface temperature variations during ENSO: evidence for a tropical atmospheric bridge. J Clim. 12(4):917–932. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<0917:RSSTVD>2.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Krishnamurti TN, Subrahmanyam D (1982) The 30–50 day mode at 850 mb during MONEX. J Atmos Sci 39(9):2088–2095. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1982)039<2088:TDMAMD>2.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Kumar VS, Kumar KA, Anand NM (2000) Characteristics of waves off Goa, West coast of India. J Coast Res 16(3):782–789

    Google Scholar 

  25. Kumar P, Min SK, Weller E et al (2016) Influence of climate variability on extreme ocean surface wave heights assessed from ERA-interim and ERA-20 C. J Clim 29:4031–4046. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0580.1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Kumar P, Kaur S, Weller E, Min SK (2019) Influence of natural climate variability on the extreme ocean surface wave heights over the Indian Ocean. J Geophys Res Ocean 124:6176–6199. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JC015391

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Li XM (2016) A new insight from space into swell propagation and crossing in the global oceans. Geophys Res Lett 43:5202–5209. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL068702

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Li J, Mao J (2019) Factors controlling the interannual variation of 30–60-day boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation over the Asian summer monsoon region. Clim Dyn 52:1651–1672. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-018-4216-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Li C-Y, Ya-Ping Z (1994) Relationship between intraseasonal oscillation in the tropical atmosphere and ENSO. Chin J Geophys 37:17–26

    Google Scholar 

  30. Lin H (2019) Long-lead ENSO control of the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation in the East Asian-western North Pacific region. NPJ Clim Atmos Sci 2:1–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41612-019-0088-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Lin H, Derome J, Brunet G (2007) The nonlinear transient atmospheric response to tropical forcing. J Clim 20:5642–5665. https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI1383.1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Liu F, Li T, Wang H et al (2016) Modulation of boreal summer intraseasonal oscillations over the Western North Pacific by ENSO. J Clim 29:7189–7201. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0831.1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Madden RA, Julian PR (1972) Description of global-scale circulation cells in the tropics with a 40–50 day period. J Atmos Sci 29(6):1109–1123. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1972)029<1109:dogscc>2.0.co;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Mirzaei A, Tangang F, Juneng L et al (2013) Wave climate simulation for southern region of the South China Sea. Ocean Dyn 63:961–977. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-013-0640-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Naseef TM, Sanil Kumar V (2020) Climatology and trends of the Indian Ocean surface waves based on 39-year long ERA5 reanalysis data. Int J Climatol 40:979–1006. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.6251

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Odériz I, Silva R, Mortlock TR, Mori N (2020) ENSO impacts on global wave climate and potential coastal hazards. J Geophys Res Ocean. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020jc0164642020jc016464

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Patra A, Min S, Seong M (2020) Climate variability impacts on global extreme wave heights: seasonal assessment using satellite data and ERA5 reanalysis. J Geophys Res Ocean 125:1846–1862. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020jc016754

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Pillai PA, Chowdary JS (2016) Indian summer monsoon intra-seasonal oscillation associated with the developing and decaying phase of El Niño. Int J Climatol 36:1846–1862. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4464

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Ramon J, Lledó L, Torralba V et al (2019) What global reanalysis best represents near-surface winds? Q J R Meteorol Soc 145:3236–3251. https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.3616

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Rasmusson EM, Carpenter TH (1982) Variations in tropical sea surface temperature and surface wind fields associated with the Southern Oscillation/El Nino (Pacific). Mon Weather Rev 110:354–384. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1982)110<0354:VITSST>2.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Remya PG, Kumar BP, Srinivas G, Nair TMB (2020) Impact of tropical and extra tropical climate variability on Indian Ocean surface waves. Clim Dyn 54:4919–4933. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-020-05262-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Sabique L, Annapurnaiah K, Balakrishnan Nair TM, Srinivas K (2012) Contribution of Southern Indian Ocean swells on the wave heights in the Northern Indian Ocean—a modeling study. Ocean Eng 43:113–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2011.12.024

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Sanil Kumar V, Anoop TR (2015) Wave energy resource assessment for the Indian shelf seas. Renew Energy 76:212–219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2014.11.034

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Sanil Kumar V, George J (2016) Influence of Indian summer monsoon variability on the surface waves in the coastal regions of eastern Arabian Sea. Ann Geophys 34:871–885. https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-34-871-2016

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Schott FA, Xie S-P, McCreary JP (2009) Indian Ocean circulation and climate variability. Rev Geophys 47:RG1002. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007RG000245

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Shanas PR, Kumar VS (2015) Trends in surface wind speed and significant wave height as revealed by ERA-Interim wind wave hindcast in the Central Bay of Bengal. Int J Climatol 35:2654–2663. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4164

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Shanas PR, Aboobacker VM, Albarakati MA, Zubier KM (2017) Climate driven variability of wind-waves in the Red Sea. Ocean Model 119:105–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2017.10.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Shimura T, Mori N, Mase H (2015) Future projection of ocean wave climate: analysis of SST impacts on wave climate changes in the Western North Pacific. J Clim 28:3171–3190. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00187.1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Srinivas G, Remya PG, Malavika S, Nair TMB (2020) The influence of Boreal Summer Intra-Seasonal Oscillations on Indo-Western Pacific Ocean surface waves. Sci Rep 10:1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69496-9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Su H, Wei C, Jiang S et al (2017) Revisiting the seasonal wave height variability in the South China Sea with merged satellite altimetry observations. Acta Oceanol Sin 36:38–50. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13131-017-1073-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Yasunari T (1979) Cloudiness fluctuations associated with the Northern Hemisphere Summer Monsoon. J Meteorol Soc Japan Ser II 57:227–242. https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj1965.57.3_227

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Yun KS, Seo KH, Ha KJ (2008) Relationship between ENSO and northward propagating intraseasonal oscillation in the east Asian summer monsoon system. J Geophys Res Atmos 113:D14120. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD009901

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Zheng CW, Li CY, Pan J (2018) Propagation route and speed of swell in the Indian Ocean. J Geophys Res Ocean 123:8–21. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JC012585

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

ERA5 data used in this study are downloaded from the ECMWF data server: http://data.ecmwf.int/data. The authors acknowledge the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi for funding the research work. The authors thank Aravind P, Jesbin George and Shanas P R for the constant support during the study. The authors wish to acknowledge the use of Python, Matlab and Ferret for analysis and graphics in this paper. The authors thank the reviewers for the comments and suggestions, which improved the content of the paper. This publication is CSIR-NIO contribution 6715 and forms part of the proposed Ph.D. work of the first author.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to V. Sanil Kumar.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Joseph, D., Kumar, V.S. Response of ocean surface waves to the co‐occurrence of Boreal Summer Intra-Seasonal Oscillation and El Niño Southern Oscillation. Clim Dyn 57, 1155–1171 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-021-05763-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Boreal Summer Intra-Seasonal Oscillation (BSISO)
  • El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
  • North Indian Ocean
  • South China Sea
  • Significant wave height
  • Mean wave period