In this study, we use convection-permitting high resolution (3 km) simulations to quantify and analyse the water budget, precipitation efficiency and water sources of 100 intense Mediterranean cyclones. To this end, we calculate the water content, advection and microphysical processes of water vapour and rain water by implementing new diagnostics to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The 100 intense cyclones have been randomly selected from a 500 intense cyclones dataset, identified and tracked in an 11-year time period in part I of this study. Results are presented in a composite approach showing that most rainfall takes place to the north-east side of the cyclones, close to their centre. Rainfall location is concomitant to the area of horizontal moisture flux convergence and is quasi-equal to the amount of water vapour loss due to microphysical processes. Similar results were found regardless if cyclones produce high or low rainfall amounts. Vertical profiles of the water budget terms revealed deeper clouds for the cyclones producing high rainfall, consistent with higher values of vertical advection of both water vapour and rain water. Finally, cyclones were analysed with respect to their precipitation efficiency, i.e. the ratio between the rainwater produced in an atmospheric column and the consequent rainfall, and showed that cyclones tend to be more efficient when their rainfall production takes place over land. Therefore, there is a complex relation between water vapour advection, precipitation efficiency and rainfall which is discussed through the comparison of two tropical-like cyclones with two cyclones that produced low rainfall amounts. Finally, our analysis is complemented by applying a Lagrangian approach to all 100 cyclones in order to quantify the water vapour source regions that contribute to the cyclones’ rainfall due to local surface evaporation. Results showed that these regions are located over both the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, however we show that cyclones producing high rainfall are related with higher water transport from both the subtropical Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea.
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The authors are grateful to Heini Wernli and one anonymous Reviewer for their fruitful comments and in depth review. Emmanouil Flaounas received support by the Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions (Grant Agreement-658997) in the framework of the project ExMeCy. This work was supported by computational time granted from the Greek Research and Technology Network (GRNET) in the National HPC facility—ARIS—under project ID pr003009.
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Flaounas, E., Fita, L., Lagouvardos, K. et al. Heavy rainfall in Mediterranean cyclones, Part II: Water budget, precipitation efficiency and remote water sources. Clim Dyn 53, 2539–2555 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-019-04639-x