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A multi-proxy quantitative record of Holocene hydrological regime on the Heixiazi Island (NE China): indications for the evolution of East Asian summer monsoon

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Abstract

The Holocene hydrological regime on the Heixiazi Island is critical for understanding the evolution of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) for the island’s climate-sensitive location on the northern fringe of the EASM domain. In this paper, a marsh depression on the central island was selected to reconstruct the locally hydrological variation and to discuss its indications for the Holocene EASM evolution. This work is based on multi-proxy (magnetic susceptibility, grain size, loss-on-ignition, and carbonate content) analyses of 22 modern sedimentary samples with a water-level gradient of 0–66 cm and 100 cored sedimentary samples covering last ~ 9.0 ka BP. The proxies’ hydrological significance was previously interpreted by the 22 modern samples using linear regression equations to construct their relationships to water-level changes. Among these proxies, the magnetic susceptibility, carbonate content, as well as the Md and sand fraction of grain size exhibit high-level relationships against the water-level changes with R2 > 0.6. Thus, these four proxies’ linear-regression equations were selected and used on the 100 cored samples, and the Holocene water-level changes in the studied depression were quantitatively reconstructed. It shows that two relatively high water-level stages with strengthened EASM occurred during 8.0–4.5 ka BP and 3.0–1.4 ka BP, which were alternated by three low water-level stages with declined EASM during ~ 9.0–8.0 ka BP, 4.5–3.0 ka BP, and 1.4–0 ka BP, respectively. Among these fluctuations, the highest water-level stage with most strengthened EASM which is defined as the Holocene Monsoon Maximum occurred during 6.4–4.5 ka BP. Such a new evolution pattern of the EASM can be further supported by a large variety of records from monsoon-margin regions. We suggest the Holocene EASM evolution was generally associated with the thermal conditions in both the inner Eurasia landmass and the West Pacific Ocean, with an exception of the weak EASM before 8.0 ka BP due to the enhanced Siberia High with the dominance of the Eurasia ice sheet in the early Holocene.

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Fig. 1

(modified from Sun and Huang 2006). Zone I is controlled by both the Indian monsoon and the east Asian monsoon; Zone II is mainly controlled by the East Asian monsoon; Zone III is controlled by the westerlies; Zone IV is located in the Tibetan Plateau with different climate. Noting that the East Asian summer monsoon plays an important role in transport of humid air masses from the western Pacific (especially from the warm pool) to the mid-high latitude regions of China. The inset figure shows the climate diagrams with monthly temperature and precipitation for the period 1954–2010 on the Heixiazi Island. The months of maximum precipitation and the warmest temperatures generally coincide, which is characteristic of the EASM climate in eastern Asia. b Map showing the hydrological settings of the Heixiazi Island and sampling site (red triangle)

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Acknowledgements

This study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41671094 and 41871098), the Foundation for Young Scientists Group of Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, CAS (No. DLSXZ1604), and the Scientific and Technological Development Program of Jilin Province (20160520081JH).

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Correspondence to Zhenqing Zhang.

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Zhang, Z., Yao, Q., Bianchette, T.A. et al. A multi-proxy quantitative record of Holocene hydrological regime on the Heixiazi Island (NE China): indications for the evolution of East Asian summer monsoon. Clim Dyn 52, 6773–6786 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-018-4544-1

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