Remote and local influences in forecasting Pacific SST: a linear inverse model and a multimodel ensemble study
- 187 Downloads
A suite of statistical linear inverse models (LIMs) are used to understand the remote and local SST variability that influences SST predictions over the North Pacific region. Observed monthly SST anomalies in the Pacific are used to construct different regional LIMs for seasonal to decadal predictions. The seasonal forecast skills of the LIMs are compared to that from three operational forecast systems in the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME), revealing that the LIM has better skill in the Northeastern Pacific than NMME models. The LIM is also found to have comparable forecast skill for SST in the Tropical Pacific with NMME models. This skill, however, is highly dependent on the initialization month, with forecasts initialized during the summer having better skill than those initialized during the winter. The data are also bandpass filtered into seasonal, interannual and decadal time scales to identify the relationships between time scales using the structure of the propagator matrix. Moreover, we investigate the influence of the tropics and extra-tropics in the predictability of the SST over the region. The Extratropical North Pacific seems to be a source of predictability for the tropics on seasonal to interannual time scales, while the tropics enhance the forecast skill for the decadal component. These results indicate the importance of temporal scale interactions in improving the predictions on decadal timescales. Hence, we show that LIMs are not only useful as benchmarks for estimates of statistical skill, but also to isolate contributions to the forecast skills from different timescales, spatial scales or even model components.
KeywordsLinear inverse model Predictability Sea surface temperature Timescale interactions NMME
We are grateful for the National Science Foundation (OCE1419306) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-MAPP; NA17OAR4310106) for funding that supported this research. Daniela F. Dias was partially supported by the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) under the Grant 221222/2014-6. We also thank an anonymous reviewer for the comments and sugestions.
- Bjerknes J (1966) A possible response of the atmospheric Hadley circulation to equatorial anomalies of ocean temperature. Tellus 18(4):820–829. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2153-3490.1966.tb00303.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kirtman BP, Min D, Infanti JM, Kinter JL, Paolino DA, Zhang Q, Van Den Dool H, Saha S, Mendez MP, Becker E, Peng P, Tripp P, Huang J, Dewitt DG, Tippett MK, Barnston AG, Li S, Rosati A, Schubert SD, Rienecker M, Suarez M, Li ZE, Marshak J, Lim YK, Tribbia J, Pegion K, Merryfield WJ, Denis B, Wood EF (2014) The North American multimodel ensemble: phase-1 seasonal-to-interannual prediction; phase-2 toward developing intraseasonal prediction. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 95(4):585–601. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00050.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Meehl GA, Goddard L, Boer G, Burgman R, Branstator G, Cassou C, Corti S, Danabasoglu G, Doblas-Reyes F, Hawkins E, Karspeck A, Kimoto M, Kumar A, Matei D, Mignot J, Msadek R, Navarra A, Pohlmann H, Rienecker M, Rosati T, Schneider E, Smith D, Sutton R, Teng H, Van Oldenborgh GJ, Vecchi G, Yeager S (2014) Decadal climate prediction an update from the trenches. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 95(2):243–267. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00241.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Newman M, Alexander MA, Ault TR, Cobb KM, Deser C, Di Lorenzo E, Mantua NJ, Miller AJ, Minobe S, Nakamura H, Schneider N, Vimont DJ, Phillips AS, Scott JD, Smith CA (2016) The Pacific decadal oscillation, revisited. J Clim 29(12):4399–4427. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0508.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar