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Table 1 Cold-season ENSO reconstructions used in this analysis and their correlation coefficients with the October–March SST over Niño 3.0 region based on the HadISST during the period of 1871–2000

From: A “La Niña-like” state occurring in the second year after large tropical volcanic eruptions during the past 1500 years

Source References Time period Correlation
Tree-rings from North America Li et al. (2011) 900–2002 0.52
Tree-rings from Mexico and Texas Cook et al. (2009) 1300–1979 0.80
Tree-rings from southwestern USA and Mexico D’Arrigo et al. (2005) 1408–1978 0.72
Tree-rings from Asia, New Zealand, and North and South America Li et al. (2013) 1301–2005 0.75
Corals, tree-rings, and ice cores from the western Pacific, New Zealand, the central Pacific and subtropical North America Braganza et al. (2009) 1525–1982 0.61
Corals from the central Pacific, tree-rings from the TexMex region and USA, and corals and ice cores from other tropical regions Wilson et al. (2010) 1607–1998 0.51
Tree-rings, corals and ice cores from the Pacific Basin McGregor et al. (2010) 1650–1977 0.79
Tree-rings, corals and ice cores from tropical Pacific region Mann et al. (2000) 1650–2000 0.73
Tree-rings from northern Mexico and southwestern USA Stahle et al. (1998) 1706–1977 0.68