Links between central Greenland stable isotopes, blocking and extreme climate variability over Europe at decadal to multidecadal time scales
- 473 Downloads
The link between central Greenland stable oxygen isotopes, atmospheric blocking frequency and cold temperature extremes at decadal to multidecadal time scales is investigated using observed and proxy data as well as model experiments. A composite analysis reveals that positive stable isotope anomalies in central Greenland are associated with enhanced blocking activity in the Atlantic European region. Several indices of blocking activity in the Atlantic European region are higher correlated with central Greenland stable isotope time series than with the North Atlantic Oscillation indices both in observations and model simulation. Furthermore, the blocking frequency anomaly pattern associated with central Greenland stable isotope variability is similar to the blocking anomaly pattern associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. A composite analysis reveals that stable isotope variations in central Greenland are related to a large-scale pattern in the frequency of extreme low temperature events with significant positive anomalies over Europe and a southwest to northeast dipolar pattern over Asia. During observational period central Greenland isotope records, blocking and extreme temperature indices over Europe show enhanced variability 10–30 and 50–70 years. Similar quasi-periodicities dominate the spectrum of central Greenland isotope variability during the last millennium. We argue that long-term variations of climate extreme indices over Europe and Asia, as derived from observational data, can be put into a long-term perspective using central Greenland stable isotope ice core records.
KeywordsGreenland ice cores Stable isotopes Atmospheric blocking Extreme temperatures
This study is promoted by Helmholtz funding through the Polar Regions and Coasts in the Changing Earth System (PACES) programme of the AWI. Funding by the Helmholtz Climate Initiative REKLIM is gratefully acknowledged. M. Ionita is funded through the OC3 Project—High- and low-latitude atmosphere–ocean interactions (Excellence Cluster “The Ocean in the Earth System”). We would like to acknowledge Dr. Martin Butzin for model data support and fruitful discussions. We thank the data contributors for making their data available to the public as well as the two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments.
- Compo GP, Whitaker JS, Sardeshmukh PD, Matsui N, Allan RJ, Yin X, Gleason BE, Vose RS, Rutledge G, Bessemoulin P, Brönnimann S, Brunet M, Crouthamel RI, Grant AN, Groisman PY, Jones PD, Kruk MC, Kruger AC, Marshall GJ, Magueri M, Mok HY, Nordli Φ, Ross TF, Trigo RM, Wang XL, Woodruff SD, Worley SJ (2011) The twentieth century reanalysis project. Q J R Meteorol Soc 137:1–28. doi: 10.1002/qj.776 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dee DP, Uppala SM, Simmons AJ, Berrisford P, Poli P, Kobayashi S, Andrae U, Balmaseda MA, Balsamo G, Bauer P, Bechtold P, Beljaars ACM, van de Berg L, Bidlot J, Bormann N, Delsol C, Dragani R, Fuentes M, Geer AJ, Haimberger L, Healy SB, Hersbach H, Holm EV, Isaksen L, Kallberg P, Khöler M, Matricardi M, McNally AP, Monge-Sanz BM, Mocrette J-J, Park B-K, Peubey C, de Rosnay P, Tavolato C, Thèpaut J-N, Vitart F (2011) The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Q J R Meteor Soc 137(656):553–597. doi: 10.1002/qj.828 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Donat MG, Alexander LV, Yang H, Durre I, Vose R, Dunn RJH, Willett KM, Aguilar E, Brunet M, Caesar J, Hewitson B, Jack C, Klein Tank AMG, Kruger AC, Marengo J, Peterson TC, Renom M, Oria Rojas C, Rusticucci M, Salinger J, Elrayah AS, Sekele SS, Srivastava AK, Trewin B, Villarroel C, Vincent LA, Zhai P, Zhang X, Kitching S (2013) Updated analysis of temperature and precipitation extreme indices since the beginning of the twentieth century: the HadEX2 data set. J Geophys Res Atmos 118:2098–2118. doi: 10.1002/jgrd.50150 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hurrell JW, Kushnir Y, Visbeck M, Ottersen G (2003) An overview of the North Atlantic Oscillation. In: Hurrell JW, Kushnir Y, Ottersen G, Visbeck M (eds) The North Atlantic Oscillation: climate significance and environmental impact. Geophysical monograph series, vol 134, pp 1–35Google Scholar
- IPCC (2000) Emission scenarios: a special report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Nakicenovic, edited by: Swart R. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Lohmann G, Rimbu N, Dima M (2005) Where can the Arctic oscillation be reconstructed? Towards a reconstruction of climate modes based on stable teleconnections. Climate of the Past Discussions, European Geosciences Union (EGU), vol 1, no 1, pp 17–56Google Scholar
- Masson-Delmotte V, Steen-Larsen HC, Ortega P, Swingedouw D, Popp T, Vinther BM, Oerter H, Sveinbjornsdottir AE, Gudlaugsdottir H, Box JE, Falourd S, Fettweis X, Gallée H, Garnier E, Gkinis V, Jouzel J, Landais A, Minster B, Paradis N, Orsi A, Risi C, Werner M, White JWC (2015) Recent changes in north-west Greenland climate documented by NEEM shallow ice core data and simulations, and implications for past temperature reconstructions. The Cryosphere 9:1481–1504. doi: 10.5194/tc-9-1481-2015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Vinther BM et al (2010b) CRETE_1974 high resolution stable oxygen isotope record. doi: 10.1594/PANGAEA.786356
- Vinther BM et al (2010c) (Fig. 20) GRIP high resolution stable oxygen isotope record. doi: 10.1594/PANGAEA.786354